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Bernales, J, Rogozhina, I, Greve, R and Thomas, M (2017) Comparison of hybrid schemes for the combination of shallow approximations in numerical simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Cryosphere, 11(1). 247-265. doi:10.5194/tc-11-247-2017

Bernales, J, Rogozhina, I and Thomas, M (2017) Melting and freezing under Antarctic ice shelves from a combination of ice-sheet modelling and observations. Journal of Glaciology, 63(240). 731-744. doi:10.1017/jog.2017.42

Collins, JA, Prange, M, Caley, T, Gimeno, L, Beckmann, B, Mulitza, S, Skonieczny, C, Roche, D and Schefuß, E (2017) Rapid termination of the African Humid Period triggered by northern high-latitude cooling. Nature Communications, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01454-y PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Erokhina, O, Rogozhina, I, Prange, M, Bakker, P, Bernales, J, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2017) Dependence of slope lapse rate over the Greenland ice sheet on background climate. Journal of Glaciology, 63(239). 568-572. doi:10.1017/jog.2017.10

Gronholz, A, Gräwe, U, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2017) Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Ocean Dynamics, 67(2). 211-235. doi:10.1007/s10236-016-1023-2

Guerreiro, CV, Baumann, KH, Brummer, GJA, Fischer, G, Korte, LF, Merkel, U, Sá, C, de Stigter, H and Stuut, JBW (2017) Coccolithophore fluxes in the open tropical North Atlantic: influence of thermocline depth, Amazon water, and Saharan dust. Biogeosciences, 14(20). 4577-4599. doi:10.5194/bg-14-4577-2017

Hoetzel, S, Dupont, LM, Marret, F, Jung, G and Wefer, G (2017) Steps in the intensification of Benguela upwelling over the Walvis Ridge during Miocene and Pliocene. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 1-13. doi:10.1007/s00531-016-1309-0 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Häggi, C, Chiessi, CM, Merkel, U, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Schulz, M and Schefuß, E (2017) Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 479. 50-59. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Karas, C, Nürnberg, D, Bahr, A, Groeneveld, J, Herrle, JO, Tiedemann, R and deMenocal, PB (2017) Pliocene oceanic seaways and global climate. Scientific Reports, 7. 39842. doi:10.1038/srep39842

Kurahashi-Nakamura, T, Paul, A and Losch, M (2017) Dynamical reconstruction of the global ocean state during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoceanography, 32(4). 326-350. doi:10.1002/2016PA003001 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Prange, M, Schefuß, E and Jennerjahn, TC (2017) Late Holocene slowdown of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation. Nature Communications, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00855-3

Mulitza, S, Chiessi, CM, Schefuß, E, Lippold, J, Wichmann, D, Antz, B, Mackensen, A, Paul, A, Prange, M, Rehfeld, K, Werner, M, Bickert, T, Frank, N, Kuhnert, H, Lynch-Stieglitz, J, Portilho-Ramos, RC, Sawakuchi, AO, Schulz, M, Schwenk, T, Tiedemann, R, Vahlenkamp, M and Zhang, Y (2017) Synchronous and proportional deglacial changes in Atlantic meridional overturning and northeast Brazilian precipitation. Paleoceanography, 32(6). 622-633. doi:10.1002/2017PA003084 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Munz, PM, Steinke, S, Böll, A, Lückge, A, Groeneveld, J, Kucera, M and Schulz, H (2017) Decadal resolution record of Oman upwelling indicates solar forcing of the Indian summer monsoon (9–6 ka). Climate of the Past, 13(5). 491-509. doi:10.5194/cp-13-491-2017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Portilho-Ramos, RC, Chiessi, CM, Zhang, Y, Mulitza, S, Kucera, M, Siccha, M, Prange, M and Paul, A (2017) Coupling of equatorial Atlantic surface stratification to glacial shifts in the tropical rainbelt. Scientific Reports, 7(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01629-z PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rachmayani, R, Prange, M, Lunt, DJ, Stone, EJ and Schulz, M (2017) Sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to interglacial climate forcing: MIS 5e versus MIS 11. Paleoceanography, 32(11). 1089-1101. doi:10.1002/2017PA003149 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rebotim, A, Voelker, AHL, Jonkers, L, Waniek, JJ, Meggers, H, Schiebel, R, Fraile, I, Schulz, M and Kucera, M (2017) Factors controlling the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Biogeosciences, 14(4). 827-859. doi:10.5194/bg-14-827-2017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Tangunan, D, Baumann, KH, Pätzold, J, Henrich, R, Kucera, M, de Pol-Holz, R and Groeneveld, J (2017) Insolation forcing of coccolithophore productivity in the western tropical Indian Ocean over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Paleoceanography. doi:10.1002/2017PA003102 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Venancio, IM, Belem, AL, Santos, TP, Lessa, DO, Albuquerque, ALS, Mulitza, S, Schulz, M and Kucera, M (2017) Calcification depths of planktonic foraminifera from the southwestern Atlantic derived from oxygen isotope analyses of sediment trap material. Marine Micropaleontology, 136. 37-50. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2017.08.006

Völpel, R, Paul, A, Krandick, A, Mulitza, S and Schulz, M (2017) Stable water isotopes in the MITgcm. Geoscientific Model Development, 10(8). 3125-3144. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-3125-2017

Berger, A, Crucifix, M, Hodell, DA, Mangili, C, McManus, JF, Otto-Bliesner, BL, Pol, K, Raynaud, D, Skinner, LC, Tzedakis, PC, Wolff, EW, Yin, QZ, Abe-Ouchi, A, Barbante, C, Brovkin, V, Cacho, I, Capron, E, Ferretti, P, Ganopolski, A, Grimalt, JO, Hönisch, B, Kawamura, K, Landais, A, Margari, V, Martrat, B, Masson-Delmotte, V, Mokeddem, Z, Parrenin, F, Prokopenko, AA, Rashid, H, Schulz, M and Riveiros, NV (2016) Interglacials of the last 800,000 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 54(1). 162-219. doi:10.1002/2015RG000482

Fischer, G, Romero, OE, Merkel, U, Donner, B, Iversen, MH, Nowald, N, Ratmeyer, V, Ruhland, G, Klann, M and Wefer, G (2016) Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. Biogeosciences, 13(10). 3071-3090. doi:10.5194/bg-13-3071-2016

Fraile, I, Arrizabalaga, H, Groeneveld, J, Kölling, M, Santos, MN, Macías, D, Addis, P, Dettman, DL, Karakulak, S, Deguara, S and Rooker, JR (2016) The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths. Journal of Marine Systems, 158. 26-33. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.12.012

Ionita, M, Scholz, P, Lohmann, G, Dima, M and Prange, M (2016) Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Scientific Reports, 6. 32881. doi:10.1038/srep32881

Johnstone, HJH, Lee, W and Schulz, M (2016) Effect of preservation state of planktonic foraminifera tests on the decrease in Mg/Ca due to reductive cleaning and on sample loss during cleaning. Chemical Geology, 420. 23-36. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.10.045 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Jung, G, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2016) Influence of topography on tropical African vegetation coverage. Climate Dynamics, 46(7-8). 2535-2549. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2716-9 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kretschmer, K, Kucera, M and Schulz, M (2016) Modeling the distribution and seasonality of Neogloboquadrina pachydermain the North Atlantic Ocean during Heinrich Stadial 1. Paleoceanography, 31(7). 986-1010. doi:10.1002/2015PA002819 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Prange, M and Steinke, S (2016) Palaeoclimatic insights into forcing and response of monsoon rainfall. Nature, 533(7602). 191-199. doi:10.1038/nature17450

Morard, R, Reinelt, M, Chiessi, CM, Groeneveld, J and Kucera, M (2016) Tracing shifts of oceanic fronts using the cryptic diversity of the planktonic foraminiferaGloborotalia inflata. Paleoceanography, 31(9). 1193-1205. doi:10.1002/2016PA002977 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rachmayani, R, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2016) Intra-interglacial climate variability: model simulations of Marine Isotope Stages 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. Climate of the Past, 12(3). 677-695. doi:10.5194/cp-12-677-2016 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Tian, Q, Prange, M and Merkel, U (2016) Precipitation and temperature changes in the major Chinese river basins during 1957–2013 and links to sea surface temperature. Journal of Hydrology, 536. 208-221. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.02.048

Varma, V, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2016) Transient simulations of the present and the last interglacial climate using the Community Climate System Model version 3: effects of orbital acceleration. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(11). 3859-3873. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3859-2016 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Venancio, IM, Franco, D, Belem, AL, Mulitza, S, Siccha, M, Albuquerque, ALS, Schulz, M and Kucera, M (2016) Planktonic foraminifera shell fluxes from a weekly resolved sediment trap record in the southwestern Atlantic: Evidence for synchronized reproduction. Marine Micropaleontology, 125. 25-35. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2016.03.003

Zhang, Y, Zhang, X, Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Zhang, X, Lohmann, G, Prange, M, Behling, H, Zabel, M, Govin, A, Sawakuchi, AO, Cruz, FW and Wefer, G (2016) Equatorial Pacific forcing of western Amazonian precipitation during Heinrich Stadial 1. Scientific Reports, 6. 35866. doi:10.1038/srep35866 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Ólafsdóttir, KB, Schulz, M and Mudelsee, M (2016) REDFIT-X: Cross-spectral analysis of unevenly spaced paleoclimate time series. Computers & Geosciences, 91. 11-18. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2016.03.001

Bouimetarhan, I, Dupont, LM, Kuhlmann, H, Pätzold, J, Prange, M, Schefuß, E and Zonneveld, KAF (2015) Northern Hemisphere control of deglacial vegetation changes in the Rufiji uplands (Tanzania). Climate of the Past, 11(5). 751-764. doi:10.5194/cp-11-751-2015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Silva, JB, Groeneveld, J and Prange, M (2015) Thermal evolution of the western South Atlantic and the adjacent continent during Termination 1. Climate of the Past, 11(6). 915-929. doi:10.5194/cp-11-915-2015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kwiatkowski, C, Prange, M, Varma, V, Steinke, S, Hebbeln, D and Mohtadi, M (2015) Holocene variations of thermocline conditions in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Quaternary Science Reviews, 114. 33-42. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.01.028 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Matos, L, Mienis, F, Wienberg, C, Frank, N, Kwiatkowski, C, Groeneveld, J, Thil, F, Abrantes, FF, Cunha, MR and Hebbeln, D (2015) Interglacial occurrence of cold-water corals off Cape Lookout (NW Atlantic): First evidence of the Gulf Stream influence. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 105. 158-170. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2015.09.003 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rachmayani, R, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2015) North African vegetation–precipitation feedback in early and mid-Holocene climate simulations with CCSM3-DGVM. Climate of the Past, 11(2). 175-185. doi:10.5194/cp-11-175-2015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Ronge, TA, Steph, S, Tiedemann, R, Prange, M, Merkel, U, Nürnberg, D and Kuhn, G (2015) Pushing the boundaries: Glacial/interglacial variability of intermediate and deep waters in the southwest Pacific over the last 350,000 years. Paleoceanography, 30(2). 23-38. doi:10.1002/2014PA002727 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schulz, J, Möller, KO, Bracher, A, Hieronymi, M, Cisewski, B, Zielinski, O, Voss, D, Gutzeit, E, Dolereit, T, Niedzwiedz, G, Kohlberg, G, Schories, D, Kiko, R, Körtzinger, A, Falldorf, C, Fischer, P, Nowald, N, Beisiegel, K, Martínez Arbizu, P, Rüssmeier, N, Röttgers, R, Büdenbender, J, Jordt-Sedlazeck, A, Koch, R, Riebesell, U, Iversen, MH, Köser, K, Kwasnitschka, T, Wellhausen, J, Thoma, C, Barz, K, Rhode, S, Nattkemper, TW, Schoening, T, Peeters, F, Hofmann, H, Busch, J, Hirche, HJ, Niehoff, B, Hildebrandt, N, Stohr, E, Winter, C, Herbst, G, Konrad, C, Schmidt, M, Linke, P, Brey, T, Bange, HW, Nolle, L, Krägefsky, S, Gröger, J, Sauter, E, Schulz, M, Müller, J, Rehder, G, Stepputtis, D, Beszteri, B, Kloster, M, Kauer, G, Göritz, A, Gege, P, Freiherr von Lukas, U and Bathmann, UV (2015) Aquatische optische Technologien in Deutschland. Marine Science Reports - Meereswissenschaftliche Berichte, 97. 1-83. doi:10.12754/msr-2015-97

Setiawan, RY, Mohtadi, M, Southon, J, Groeneveld, J, Steinke, S and Hebbeln, D (2015) The consequences of opening the Sunda Strait on the hydrography of the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Paleoceanography, 30(10). 1358-1372. doi:10.1002/2015PA002802 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Voigt, I, Chiessi, CM, Prange, M, Mulitza, S, Groeneveld, J, Varma, V and Henrich, R (2015) Holocene shifts of the southern westerlies across the South Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 30(2). 39-51. doi:10.1002/2014PA002677 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zhang, X, Prange, M, Merkel, U and Schulz, M (2015) Spatial fingerprint and magnitude of changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during marine isotope stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(6). 1903-1911. doi:10.1002/2014GL063003

de Boer, B, Dolan, AM, Bernales, J, Gasson, E, Goelzer, H, Golledge, NR, Sutter, J, Huybrechts, P, Lohmann, G, Rogozhina, I, Abe-Ouchi, A, Saito, F and van de Wal, RSW (2015) Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project. The Cryosphere, 9(3). 881-903. doi:10.5194/tc-9-881-2015

de Leeuw, G, Holzer-Popp, T, Bevan, S, Davies, WH, Descloitres, J, Grainger, RG, Griesfeller, J, Heckel, A, Kinne, S, Klüser, L, Kolmonen, P, Litvinov, P, Martynenko, D, North, P, Ovigneur, B, Pascal, N, Poulsen, C, Ramon, D, Schulz, M, Siddans, R, Sogacheva, L, Tanré, D, Thomas, GE, Virtanen, TH, von Hoyningen Huene, W, Vountas, M and Pinnock, S (2015) Evaluation of seven European aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithms for climate analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment, 162. 295-315. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.04.023

Bakker, P, Masson-Delmotte, V, Martrat, B, Charbit, S, Renssen, H, Gröger, M, Krebs-Kanzow, U, Lohmann, G, Lunt, DJ, Pfeiffer, M, Phipps, SJ, Prange, M, Ritz, SP, Schulz, M, Stenni, B, Stone, EJ and Varma, V (2014) Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods – a multi-model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 99. 224-243. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.031

Bornemann, A, Norris, RD, Lyman, JA, D'haenens, S, Groeneveld, J, Röhl, U, Farley, KA and Speijer, RP (2014) Persistent environmental change after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in the eastern North Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 394. 70-81. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Groeneveld, J, Silva, JB, Campos, MC and Gurgel, MHC (2014) Variability of the Brazil Current during the late Holocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 415. 28-36. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.12.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Contreras-Rosales, LA, Jennerjahn, TC, Tharammal, T, Meyer, V, Lückge, A, Paul, A and Schefuß, E (2014) Evolution of the Indian Summer Monsoon and terrestrial vegetation in the Bengal region during the past 18 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews, 102. 133-148. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.08.010 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Govin, A, Varma, V and Prange, M (2014) Astronomically forced variations in western African rainfall (21°N-20°S) during the Last Interglacial period. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(6). 2117-2125. doi:10.1002/2013GL058999 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Groeneveld, J, Hathorne, EC, Steinke, S, DeBey, H, Mackensen, A and Tiedemann, R (2014) Glacial induced closure of the Panamanian Gateway during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 95–100 (similar to 2.5 Ma). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 404. 296-306. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.08.007 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Johnstone, HJH, Kiefer, T, Elderfield, H and Schulz, M (2014) Calcite saturation, foraminiferal test mass, and Mg/Ca-based temperatures dissolution corrected using XDX-A 150 ka record from the western Indian Ocean. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15(3). 781-797. doi:10.1002/2013GC004994 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Jung, G, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2014) Uplift of Africa as a potential cause for Neogene intensification of the Benguela upwelling system. Nature Geoscience, 7(10). 741-747. doi:10.1038/NGEO2249 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kleinen, T, Hildebrandt, S, Prange, M, Rachmayani, R, Müller, S, Bezrukova, E, Brovkin, V and Tarasov, PE (2014) The climate and vegetation of Marine Isotope Stage 11 – Model results and proxy-based reconstructions at global and regional scale. Quaternary International, 348. 247-265. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.12.028 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kurahashi-Nakamura, T, Losch, M and Paul, A (2014) Can sparse proxy data constrain the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation? Geoscientific Model Development, 7(1). 419-432. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-419-2014 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Prange, M, Oppo, DW, de Pol-Holz, R, Merkel, U, Zhang, X, Steinke, S and Lückge, A (2014) North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate. Nature, 509(7498). 76-80. doi:10.1038/nature13196 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Osborne, AH, Newkirk, DR, Groeneveld, J, Martin, EE, Tiedemann, R and Frank, M (2014) The seawater neodymium and lead isotope record of the final stages of Central American Seaway closure. Paleoceanography, 29(7). 715-729. doi:10.1002/2014PA002676 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Pol, K, Masson-Delmotte, V, Cattani, O, Debret, M, Falourd, S, Jouzel, J, Landais, A, Minster, B, Mudelsee, M, Schulz, M and Stenni, B (2014) Climate variability features of the last interglacial in the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice core. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(11). 4004-4012. doi:10.1002/2014GL059561

Romahn, S, Mackensen, A, Groeneveld, J and Pätzold, J (2014) Deglacial intermediate water reorganization: new evidence from the Indian Ocean. Climate of the Past, 10(1). 293-303. doi:10.5194/cp-10-293-2014 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steinke, S, Mohtadi, M, Prange, M, Varma, V, Pittauerová, D and Fischer, HW (2014) Mid- to Late-Holocene Australian–Indonesian summer monsoon variability. Quaternary Science Reviews, 93. 142-154. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.04.006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steinke, S, Prange, M, Feist, C, Groeneveld, J and Mohtadi, M (2014) Upwelling variability off southern Indonesia over the past two millennia. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(21). 7684-7693. doi:10.1002/2014GL061450 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Waelbroeck, C, Kiefer, T, Dokken, T, Chen, MT, Spero, HJ, Jung, S, Weinelt, M, Kucera, M and Paul, A (2014) Constraints on surface seawater oxygen isotope change between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Late Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 105. 102-111. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.020

Zhang, X, Prange, M, Merkel, U and Schulz, M (2014) Instability of the Atlantic overturning circulation during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(12). 4285-4293. doi:10.1002/2014GL060321

Bakker, P, Stone, EJ, Charbit, S, Gröger, M, Krebs-Kanzow, U, Ritz, SP, Varma, V, Khon, V, Lunt, DJ, Mikolajewicz, U, Prange, M, Renssen, H, Schneider, B and Schulz, M (2013) Last interglacial temperature evolution - a model inter-comparison. Climate of the Past, 9(2). 605-619. doi:10.5194/cp-9-605-2013

Bouimetarhan, I, Groeneveld, J, Dupont, LM and Zonneveld, KAF (2013) Low- to high- productivity pattern within Heinrich stadial 1: Inferrences from dinoflagellate cyst records off Senegal. Global and Planetary Change, 106. 64-76. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.03.007 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chu, K, Winter, C, Hebbeln, D and Schulz, M (2013) Improvement of morphodynamic modeling of tidal channel migration by nudging. Coastal Engineering, 77. 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.02.004 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Collins, JA, Schefuß, E, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Werner, M, Tharammal, T, Paul, A and Wefer, G (2013) Estimating the hydrogen isotopic composition of past precipitation using leaf-waxes from western Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 65. 88-101. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.007 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Groeneveld, J and Filipsson, HL (2013) Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera: the potential to reconstruct past variations in temperature and hypoxia in shelf regions. Biogeosciences, 10(7). 5125-5138. doi:10.5194/bg-10-5125-2013

Handiani, DN, Paul, A, Prange, M, Merkel, U, Dupont, LM and Zhang, X (2013) Tropical vegetation response to Heinrich Event 1 as simulated with the UVic ESCM and CCSM3. Climate of the Past, 9(4). 1683-1696. doi:10.5194/cp-9-1683-2013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hargreaves, JC, Annan, JD, Ohgaito, R, Paul, A and Abe-Ouchi, A (2013) Skill and reliability of climate model ensembles at the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene. Climate of the Past, 9(2). 811-823. doi:10.5194/cp-9-811-2013

Holzer-Popp, T, de Leeuw, G, Griesfeller, J, Martynenko, D, Klüser, L, Bevan, S, Davies, W, Ducos, F, Deuzé, JL, Graigner, RG, Heckel, A, von Hoyningen-Hüne, W, Kolmonen, P, Litvinov, P, North, P, Poulsen, CA, Ramon, D, Siddans, R, Sogacheva, L, Tanre, D, Thomas, GE, Vountas, M, Descloitres, J, Griesfeller, J, Kinne, S, Schulz, M and Pinnock, S (2013) Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6(8). 1919-1957. doi:10.5194/amt-6-1919-2013

Kageyama, M, Merkel, U, Otto-Bliesner, B, Prange, M, Abe-Ouchi, A, Lohmann, G, Ohgaito, R, Roche, DM, Singarayer, J, Swingedouw, D and Zhang, X (2013) Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study. Climate of the Past, 9(2). 935-953. doi:10.5194/cp-9-935-2013

Lunt, DJ, Abe-Ouchi, A, Bakker, P, Berger, A, Braconnot, P, Charbit, S, Fischer, N, Herold, N, Jungclaus, JH, Khon, VC, Krebs-Kanzow, U, Langebroek, PM, Lohmann, G, Nisancioglu, KH, Otto-Bliesner, BL, Park, W, Pfeiffer, M, Phipps, SJ, Prange, M, Rachmayani, R, Renssen, H, Rosenbloom, N, Schneider, B, Stone, EJ, Takahashi, K, Wei, W, Yin, Q and Zhang, ZS (2013) A multi-model assessment of last interglacial temperatures. Climate of the Past, 9(2). 699-717. doi:10.5194/cp-9-699-2013

Masson-Delmotte, V, Schulz, M, Abe-Ouchi, A, Beer, J, Ganopolski, A, Gonzáles Rouco, JF, Jansen, E, Lambeck, K, Luterbacher, J, Naish, T, Osborn, T, Otto-Bliesner, B, Quinn, T, Ramesh, R, Rojas, M, Shao, X and Timmermann, A (2013) Information from Paleoclimate Archives. In: Stocker, TF, Qin, D, Plattner, GK, Tignor, M, Allen, SK, Boschung, J, Nauels, A, Xia, Y, Bex, V and Midgley, PM (eds.) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Milker, Y, Rachmayani, R, Weinkauf, MFG, Prange, M, Raitzsch, M, Schulz, M and Kucera, M (2013) Global and regional sea surface temperature trends during Marine Isotope Stage 11. Climate of the Past, 9(5). 2231-2252. doi:10.5194/cp-9-2231-2013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Tharammal, T, Paul, A, Merkel, U and Noone, D (2013) Influence of Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions on the global water isotope distribution in an atmospheric general circulation model. Climate of the Past, 9(2). 789-809. doi:10.5194/cp-9-789-2013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Anjar, J, Adrielsson, L, Bennike, O, Björck, S, Filipsson, HL, Groeneveld, J, Knudsen, KL, Larsen, NK and Möller, P (2012) Palaeoenvironments in the southern Baltic Sea Basin during Marine Isotope Stage 3: a multi-proxy reconstruction. Quaternary Science Reviews, 34. 81-92. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.12.009

Bouimetarhan, I, Prange, M, Schefuß, E, Dupont, LM, Lippold, J, Mulitza, S and Zonneveld, KAF (2012) Sahel megadrought during Heinrich Stadial 1: evidence for a three-phase evolution of the low- and mid-level West African wind system. Quaternary Science Reviews, 58. 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.10.015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Butzin, M, Prange, M and Lohmann, G (2012) Readjustment of glacial radiocarbon chronologies by self-consistent three-dimensional ocean circulation modeling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-31. 177-184. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.046 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Felis, T, Merkel, U, Asami, R, Deschamps, P, Hathorne, EC, Kölling, M, Bard, E, Cabioch, G, Durand, N, Prange, M, Schulz, M, Cahyarini, SY and Pfeiffer, M (2012) Pronounced interannual variability in tropical South Pacific temperatures during Heinrich Stadial 1. Nature Communications, 3. 965. doi:10.1038/ncomms1973 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Handiani, DN, Paul, A and Dupont, LM (2012) Tropical climate and vegetation changes during Heinrich Event 1: a model-data comparison. Climate of the Past, 8(1). 37-57. doi:10.5194/cp-8-37-2012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Heslop, D and Paul, A (2012) Fingerprinting of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in climate models to aid in the design of proxy investigations. Climate Dynamics, 38(5-6). 1047-1064. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1042-0

Hessler, I, Dupont, LM, Handiani, DN, Paul, A, Merkel, U and Wefer, G (2012) Masked millennial-scale climate variations in South West Africa during the last glaciation. Climate of the Past, 8(2). 841-853. doi:10.5194/cp-8-841-2012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Huang, E, Mulitza, S, Paul, A, Groeneveld, J, Steinke, S and Schulz, M (2012) Response of eastern tropical Atlantic central waters to Atlantic meridional overturning circulation changes during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadial 1. Paleoceanography, 27. doi:10.1029/2012PA002294 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Seidenglanz, A, Prange, M, Varma, V and Schulz, M (2012) Ocean temperature response to idealized Gleissberg and de Vries solar cycles in a comprehensive climate model. Geophysical Research Letters, 39. doi:10.1029/2012GL053624 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Varma, V, Prange, M, Merkel, U, Kleinen, T, Lohmann, G, Pfeiffer, M, Renssen, H, Wagner, A, Wagner, S and Schulz, M (2012) Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models. Climate of the Past, 8(2). 391-402. doi:10.5194/cp-8-391-2012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Varma, V, Prange, M, Spangehl, T, Lamy, F, Cubasch, U and Schulz, M (2012) Impact of solar-induced stratospheric ozone decline on Southern Hemisphere westerlies during the Late Maunder Minimum. Geophysical Research Letters, 39. doi:10.1029/2012GL053403

Zhang, X, Prange, M, Steph, S, Butzin, M, Krebs, U, Lunt, DJ, Nisancioglu, KH, Park, W, Schmittner, A, Schneider, B and Schulz, M (2012) Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-31. 76-84. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.028 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chu, K, Winter, C, Hebbeln, D and Schulz, M (2011) Optimization scheme for coastal morphodynamic model. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 64. 736-740.

Collins, JA, Schefuß, E, Heslop, D, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Zabel, M, Tjallingii, R, Dokken, T, Huang, E, Mackensen, A, Schulz, M, Tian, J, Zarriess, M and Wefer, G (2011) Interhemispheric symmetry of tropical African rainbelt over the past 23,000 years. Nature Geoscience, 4(1). 42-45. doi:10.1038/ngeo1039 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

De Schepper, S, Fischer, EI, Groeneveld, J, Head, MJ and Matthiessen, J (2011) Deciphering the palaeoecology of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene dinoflagellate cysts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 309(1-2). 17-32. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.04.020 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Groeneveld, J and Chiessi, CM (2011) Mg/Ca ratios of Globorotalia inflata as a recorder of permanent thermocline temperatures in the South Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 26. PA2203. doi:10.1029/2010PA001940 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Haarmann, T, Hathorne, EC, Mohtadi, M, Groeneveld, J, Kölling, M and Bickert, T (2011) Mg/Ca ratios of single planktonic foraminifer shells and the potential to reconstruct the thermal seasonality of the water column. Paleoceanography, 26. PA3218. doi:10.1029/2010PA002091 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hargreaves, JC, Paul, A, Ohgaito, R, Abe-Ouchi, A and Annan, JD (2011) Are paleoclimate model ensembles consistent with the MARGO data synthesis? Climate of the Past, 7. 917-933. doi:10.5194/cp-7-917-2011

Heslop, D and Paul, A (2011) Can oceanic paleothermometers reconstruct the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation? Climate of the Past, 7. 151-159. doi:10.5194/cp-7-151-2011

Hessler, I, Steinke, S, Groeneveld, J, Dupont, LM and Wefer, G (2011) Impact of abrupt climate change in the tropical southeast Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Paleoceanography, 26. PA4209. doi:10.1029/2011PA002118 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Johnstone, HJH, Yu, J, Elderfield, H and Schulz, M (2011) Improving temperature estimates derived from Mg/Ca of planktonic foraminifera using X-ray computed tomography-based dissolution index, XDX. Paleoceanography, 26. PA1215. doi:10.1029/2009PA001902 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Oppo, DW, Lückge, A, de Pol-Holz, R, Groeneveld, J, Steinke, S, Hemme, N and Hebbeln, D (2011) Reconstructing the thermal structure of the upper ocean: Insights from planktic foraminifera shell chemistry and alkenones in modern sediments of the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Paleoceanography, 26. PA2119. doi:10.1029/2011PA002132 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Morley, AMV, Schulz, M, Rosenthal, Y, Mulitza, S, Paul, A and Rühlemann, C (2011) Solar modulation of North Atlantic central water formation at multidecadal timescales during the late Holocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 308. 161-171. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.043

Müller, J, Wagner, A, Fahl, K, Stein, R, Prange, M and Lohmann, G (2011) Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: A combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 306. 137-148. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.011

Rackebrandt, N, Kuhnert, H, Groeneveld, J and Bickert, T (2011) Persisting maximum Agulhas leakage during MIS 14 indicated by massive Ethmodiscus oozes in the subtropical South Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 26. PA3202. doi:10.1029/2010PA001990 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Raitzsch, M, Hathorne, EC, Kuhnert, H, Groeneveld, J and Bickert, T (2011) Modern and Late Pleistocene B/Ca ratios of the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi determined with laser ablation ICP-MS. Geology, 39(11). 1039-1042. doi:10.1130/G32009.1

Raitzsch, M, Kuhnert, H, Hathorne, EC, Groeneveld, J and Bickert, T (2011) U/Ca in benthic foraminifers: A proxy for the deep-sea carbonate saturation. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 12(6). doi:10.1029/2010GC003344 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Kuhlmann, H, Mollenhauer, G, Prange, M and Pätzold, J (2011) Forcing of south-east African wet phases during the last 17,000 years. Nature, 480(7378). 509-512. doi:10.1038/nature10685 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steinke, S, Glatz, C, Mohtadi, M, Groeneveld, J, Li, Q and Jian, Z (2011) Past dynamics of the East Asian monsoon: No inverse behaviour between the summer and winter monsoon during the Holocene. Global and Planetary Change, 78(3-4). 170-177. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.06.006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Varma, V, Prange, M, Lamy, F, Merkel, U and Schulz, M (2011) Solar-forced shifts of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Holocene. Climate of the Past, 7. 339-347. doi:10.5194/cp-7-339-2011 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wagner, A, Lohmann, G and Prange, M (2011) Arctic river discharge trends since 7 ka BP. Global and Planetary Change, 79(1-2). 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zarriess, M, Johnstone, HJH, Prange, M, Steph, S, Groeneveld, J, Mulitza, S and Mackensen, A (2011) Bipolar seesaw in the northeastern tropical Atlantic during Heinrich stadials. Geophysical Research Letters, 38. L04706. doi:10.1029/2010GL046070 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

van Raden, UJ, Groeneveld, J, Raitzsch, M and Kucera, M (2011) Mg/Ca in the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia inflata and Globigerinoides bulloides from Western Mediterranean plankton tow and core top samples. Marine Micropaleontology, 78(3-4). 101-112. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2010.11.002

Bamberg, A, Rosenthal, Y, Paul, A, Heslop, D, Mulitza, S, Rühlemann, C and Schulz, M (2010) Reduced North Atlantic Central Water formation in response to early Holocene ice-sheet melting. Geophysical Research Letters, 37. L17705. doi:10.1029/2010GL043878 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Berger, WH, Schulz, M and Wefer, G (2010) Quaternary oceans and climate change: lessons for the future? International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(1). 171-189. doi:10.1007/s00531-010-0553-y

Dupont, LM, Schlütz, F, Teboh Ewah, C, Jennerjahn, TC, Paul, A and Behling, H (2010) Two-step vegetation response to enhanced precipitation in Northeast Brazil during Heinrich event 1. Global Change Biology, 16(6). 1647-1660. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02023.x PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Fink, C, Baumann, KH, Groeneveld, J and Steinke, S (2010) Strontium/Calcium ratio, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in coccolith carbonate from different grain-size fractions in South Atlantic surface sediments. Geobios, 43(1). 151-164. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2009.11.001

Giraud, X and Paul, A (2010) Interpretation of the paleo-primary production record in the NW African coastal upwelling system as potentially biased by sea level change. Paleoceanography, 25. PA4224. doi:10.1029/2009PA001795

Holbourn, AEL, Kuhnt, W, Regenberg, M, Schulz, M, Mix, AC and Andersen, N (2010) Does Antarctic glaciation force migration of the tropical rain belt? Geology, 38(9). 783-786. doi:10.1130/G31043.1

Johnstone, HJH, Schulz, M, Barker, S and Elderfield, H (2010) Inside story: An X-ray computed tomography method for assessing dissolution in the tests of planktonic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 77(1-2). 58-70. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2010.07.004 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kageyama, M, Paul, A, Roche, DM and Van Meerbeeck, CJ (2010) Modelling glacial climatic millennial-scale variability related to changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(21-22). 2931-2956. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.05.029

Lamy, F, Kilian, R, Arz, HW, Francois, JP, Kaiser, J, Prange, M and Steinke, T (2010) Holocene changes in the position and intensity of the southern westerly wind belt. Nature Geoscience, 3(10). 695-699. doi:10.1038/NGEO959 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Langebroek, PM, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2010) Simulating the sea lvel imprint on marine oxygen isotope records during the Middle Miocene using an ice sheet-climate model. Paleoceanography, 25. PA4203. doi:10.1029/2008PA001704

Lopes dos Santos, RA, Prange, M, Castañeda, IS, Schefuß, E, Mulitza, S, Schulz, M, Niedermeyer, EM, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2010) Glacial-interglacial variability in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and thermocline adjustments in the tropical North Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300(3-4). 407-414. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.030

Merkel, U, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2010) ENSO variability and teleconnections during glacial climates. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(1-2). 86-100. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Lückge, A, Steinke, S, Groeneveld, J, Hebbeln, D and Westphal, N (2010) Late Pleistocene surface and thermocline conditions of the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(7-8). 887-896. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.12.006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Steinke, S, Lückge, A, Groeneveld, J and Hathorne, EC (2010) Glacial to Holocene surface hydrography of the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 292(1-2). 89-97. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.024 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mulitza, S, Heslop, D, Pittauerová, D, Fischer, HW, Meyer, I, Stuut, JB, Zabel, M, Mollenhauer, G, Collins, JA, Kuhnert, H and Schulz, M (2010) Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Nature, 466. 226-228. doi:10.1038/nature09213 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Narayan, N, Paul, A, Mulitza, S and Schulz, M (2010) Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century. Ocean Science, 6. 815-823. doi:10.5194/os-6-815-2010

Niedermeyer, EM, Schefuß, E, Sessions, AL, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Schulz, M and Wefer, G (2010) Orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the hydrologic cycle and vegetation in the western African Sahel: Insights from individual plant wax delta D and d13C. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(23-24). 2996-3005. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.039 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Prange, M, Jongma, JI and Schulz, M (2010) Centennial-to-millennial-scale Holocene climate variability in the North Atlantic region induced by noise. In: Palmer, T and Williams, P (eds.) Stochastic Physics and Climate Modelling. Cambridge University Press, 307-326.

Prange, M, Steph, S, Schulz, M and Keigwin, LD (2010) Inferring moisture transport across Central America: Can modern analogs of climate variability help reconcile paleosalinity records? Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(11-12). 1317-1321. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.029

Steinke, S, Groeneveld, J, Johnstone, HJH and Rendle-Bühring, R (2010) East Asian summer monsoon weakening after 7.5 Ma: Evidence from combined planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca and delta 0-18 (ODP Site 1146; northern South China Sea). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 289(1-4). 33-43. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.007 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steinke, S, Mohtadi, M, Groeneveld, J, Lin, LC, Löwemark, L, Chen, MT and Rendle-Bühring, R (2010) Reconstructing the southern South China Sea upper water column structure since the Last Glacial Maximum: Implications for the East Asian winter monsoon development. Paleoceanography, 25. PA2219. doi:10.1029/2009PA001850 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steph, S, Tiedemann, R, Prange, M, Groeneveld, J, Schulz, M, Timmermann, A, Nürnberg, D, Rühlemann, C, Saukel, C and Haug, GH (2010) Early Pliocene increase in thermohaline overturning: A precondition for the development of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue. Paleoceanography, 25. PA2202. doi:10.1029/2008PA001645

Timmermann, A, Menviel, L, Okumura, Y, Schilla, A, Merkel, U, Timm, O, Hu, A, Otto-Bliesner, BL and Schulz, M (2010) Towards a quantitative understanding of millennial-scale Antarctic Warming Events. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(1-2). 74-85. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.06.021

De Schepper, S, Head, MJ and Groeneveld, J (2009) North Atlantic Current variability through marine isotope stage M2 (circa 3.3 Ma) during the mid-Pliocene. Paleoceanography, 24. PA4206. doi:10.1029/2008PA001725 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Fraile, I, Mulitza, S and Schulz, M (2009) Modeling planktonic foraminiferal seasonality: Implications for sea-surface temperature reconstructions. Marine Micropaleontology, 72(1-2). 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2009.01.003

Fraile, I, Schulz, M, Mulitza, S, Merkel, U, Prange, M and Paul, A (2009) Modeling the seasonal distribution of planktonic foraminifera during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoceanography, 24. PA2216. doi:10.1029/2008PA001686

Jones, PD, Briffa, KR, Osborn, TJ, Lough, JM, van Ommen, TD, Vinther, BM, Luterbacher, J, Wahl, ER, Zwiers, FW, Mann, ME, Schmidt, GA, Ammann, CM, Buckley, BM, Cobb, KM, Esper, J, Goosse, H, Graham, N, Jansen, E, Kiefer, T, Kull, C, Küttel, M, Mosley-Thompson, E, Overpeck, JT, Riedwyl, N, Schulz, M, Tudhope, AW, Villalba, R, Wanner, H, Wolff, E and Xoplaki, E (2009) High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. The Holocene, 19(1). 3-49. doi:10.1177/0959683608098952

Langebroek, PM, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2009) Antarctic ice-sheet response to atmospheric CO2 and insolation in the Middle Miocene. Climate of the Past, 5(4). 633-646. doi:10.5194/cp-5-633-2009

MARGO Project Members, Waelbroeck, C, Paul, A, Kucera, M, Rosell-Melé, A, Weinelt, M, Schneider, RR, Mix, AC, Abelmann, A, Armand, LK, Bard, E, Barker, S, Barrows, TT, Benway, HM, Cacho Lascorz, I, Chen, MT, Cortijo, E, Crosta, X, de Vernal, A, Dokken, T, Duprat, J, Elderfield, H, Eynaud, F, Gersonde, R, Hayes, A, Henry, M, Hillaire-Marcel, C, Huang, CC, Jansen, E, Juggins, S, Kallel, N, Kiefer, T, Kienast, M, Labeyrie, LD, Leclaire, H, Londeix, L, Mangin, S, Matthiessen, J, Marret, F, Meland, MY, Morey, AE, Mulitza, S, Pflaumann, U, Pisias, NG, Radi, T, Rochon, A, Rohling, EJ, Sbaffi, L, Schäfer-Neth, C, Solignac, S, Spero, H, Tachikawa, K and Turon, JL (2009) Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Geoscience, 2(2). 127-132. doi:10.1038/ngeo411 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Steinke, S, Groeneveld, J, Fink, HG, Rixen, T, Hebbeln, D, Donner, B and Herunadi, B (2009) Low-latitude control on seasonal and interannual changes in planktonic foraminiferal flux and shell geochemistry off south Java: A sediment trap study. Paleoceanography, 24. PA1201. doi:10.1029/2008PA001636 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Niedermeyer, EM, Prange, M, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Schefuß, E and Schulz, M (2009) Extratropical forcing of Sahel aridity during Heinrich stadials. Geophysical Research Letters, 36. L20707. doi:10.1029/2009GL039687 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Otto-Bliesner, BL, Schneider, RR, Brady, EC, Kucera, M, Abe-Ouchi, A, Bard, E, Braconnot, P, Crucifix, M, Hewitt, CD, Kageyama, M, Marti, O, Paul, A, Rosell-Melé, A, Waelbroeck, C, Weber, SL, Weinelt, M and Yu, Y (2009) A comparison of PMIP2 model simulations and the MARGO proxy reconstruction for tropical sea surface temperatures at last glacial maximum. Climate Dynamics, 32. 799-815. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0509-0

Sarnthein, M, Bartoli, G, Prange, M, Schmittner, A, Schneider, B, Weinelt, M, Andersen, N and Garbe-Schönberg, CD (2009) Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates. Climate of the Past, 5. 269-283. doi:10.5194/cp-5-269-2009 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Paul, A, Pätzold, J, Groeneveld, J and Wefer, G (2008) South Atlantic interocean exchange as the trigger for the Bølling warm event. Geology, 36(12). 919-922. doi:10.1130/G24979A.1 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Fraile, I, Schulz, M, Mulitza, S and Kucera, M (2008) Predicting the global distribution of planktonic foraminifera using a dynamic ecosystem model. Biogeosciences, 5. 891-911. doi:10.5194/bg-5-891-2008

Franke, J, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2008) Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45 000 years. Climate of the Past, 4. 125-136. doi:10.5194/cp-4-125-2008

Franke, J, Schulz, M, Paul, A and Adkins, J (2008) Assessing the ability of the 14C projection-age method to constrain the circulation of the past in a 3-D ocean model. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9. Q08003. doi:10.1029/2008GC001943

Greaves, M, Caillon, N, Rebaubier, H, Bartoli, G, Bohaty, SM, Cacho, I, Clarke, LJ, Cooper, M, Daunt, C, Delaney, ML, deMenocal, PB, Dutton, A, Eggins, SM, Elderfield, H, Garbe-Schoenberg, D, Goddard, JG, Green, DRH, Groeneveld, J, Hastings, D, Hathorne, EC, Kimoto, K, Klinkhammer, GP, Labeyrie, LD, Lea, DW, Marchitto, TM, Martínez-Botí, MÀ, Mortyn, PG, Ni, A, Nürnberg, D, Paradis, GL, Pena, L, Quinn, TM, Rosenthal, Y, Russell, AD, Sagawa, T, Sosdian, S, Stott, LD, Tachikawa, K, Tappa, E, Thunell, RC and Wilson, PA (2008) Interlaboratory comparison study of calibration standards for foraminiferal Mg/Ca thermometry. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9(8). Q08010. doi:10.1029/2008GC001974

Groeneveld, J, Nürnberg, D, Tiedemann, R, Reichart, GJ, Steph, S, Reuning, L, Crudeli, D and Mason, P (2008) Foraminiferal Mg/Ca increase in the Caribbean during the Pliocene: Western Atlantic Warm Pool formation, salinity influence, or diagenetic overprint? Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9. Q01P23. doi:10.1029/2006GC001564 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Stuut, JB, Zabel, M, von Dobeneck, T, Itambi, AC, Nizou, J, Schulz, M and Wefer, G (2008) Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning. Paleoceanography, 23. PA4206. doi:10.1029/2008PA001637 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Prange, M (2008) The low-resolution CCSM2 revisted: new adjustments and a present-day control run. Ocean Science, 4. 151-181. doi:10.5194/os-4-151-2008

Raitzsch, M, Kuhnert, H, Groeneveld, J and Bickert, T (2008) Benthic foraminifer Mg/Ca anomalies in South Atlantic core top sediments and their implications for paleothermometry. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9(5). Q05010. doi:10.1029/2007GC001788 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schulz, M, Berger, WH and Jansen, E (2008) Listening to glaciers (Letter to the editor). Nature Geoscience, 1(7). doi:10.1038/ngeo235

Steinke, S, Kienast, M, Groeneveld, J, Lin, LC, Chen, MT and Rendle-Bühring, R (2008) Proxy dependence of the temporal patterns of deglacial warming in the tropical South China Sea: Toward resolving seasonality. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(7-8). 688-700. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.12.003 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zheng, W, Braconnot, P, Guilyardi, E, Merkel, U and Yu, Y (2008) ENSO at 6 ka and 21 ka from ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations. Climate Dynamics, 30. 745-762. doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0320-3

Holbourn, AEL, Kuhnt, W, Schulz, M, Flores, JA and Andersen, N (2007) Orbitally-paced climate evolution during the middle Miocene "Monterey" carbon-isotope excursion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261(3-4). 534-550. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.026 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Huhn, K, Paul, A and Seyferth, M (2007) Modeling sediment transport patterns during an upwelling event. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 112. C10003. doi:10.1029/2005JC003107

Jongma, JI, Prange, M, Renssen, H and Schulz, M (2007) Amplification of Holocene multicentennial climate forcing by mode transitions in North Atlantic overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 34. L15706. doi:10.1029/2007GL030642

Marchal, O, Jackson, C, Nilsson, J, Paul, A and Stocker, TF (2007) Buoyancy-Driven Flow and Nature of Vertical Mixing in a Zonally Averaged Model. In: Schmittner, A, Chiang, JCH and Hemming, SR (eds.) Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and impacts. Geophysical Monograph Series, 173. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 33-52. doi:10.1029/173GM05

Schulz, M, Prange, M and Klocker, A (2007) Low-frequency oscillations of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation in a coupled climate model. Climate of the Past, 2. 97-107. doi:10.5194/cp-3-97-2007

Groeneveld, J, Steph, S, Tiedemann, R, Garbe-Schönberg, CD, Nürnberg, D and Sturm, A (2006) Pliocene Mixed-Layer Oceanography for Site 1241, Using Combined Mg/Ca and d18O Analyses of Globigerinoides Sacculifer. In: Tiedemann, R, Mix, AC, Richter, C and Ruddiman, WF (eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1-27. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.202.209.2006

Mulitza, S, Paul, A and Wefer, G (2006) Late Pleistocene paleoceanographic records of the South Atlantic Ocean. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, Elsevier. 1816-1831.

Nürnberg, D and Groeneveld, J (2006) Pleistocene variability of the Subtropical Convergene at East Tasman Plateau: Evidence from planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca (ODP Site 1172A). Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 7(4). Q04P11. doi:10.1029/2005GC000984

Prange, M and Gerdes, R (2006) The role of surface freshwater flux boundary conditions in Arctic Ocean modelling. Ocean Modelling, 13(1). 25-43. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2005.09.003

Regenberg, M, Nürnberg, D, Steph, S, Groeneveld, J, Garbe-Schönberg, CD, Tiedemann, R and Dullo, WC (2006) Assessing the effect of dissolution on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/ca ratios: Evidence from Caribbean core tops. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 7. Q07P15. doi:10.1029/2005GC001019

Sima, A, Paul, A, Schulz, M and Oerlemans, J (2006) Modeling the oxygen-isotopic composition of the North American Ice Sheet and its effect on the oxygen-isotopic composition of the ocean during the last glacial cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 33. L15706. doi:10.1029/2006GL026923

Steph, S, Tiedemann, R, Groeneveld, J, Sturm, A and Nürnberg, D (2006) Pliocene changes in tropical east Pacific upper ocean stratification: Response to tropical gateways? In: Tiedemann, R, Mix, AC, Richter, C and Ruddiman, WF (eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1-51. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.202.211.2006 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Steph, S, Tiedemann, R, Prange, M, Groeneveld, J, Nürnberg, D, Reuning, L, Schulz, M and Haug, GH (2006) Changes in Caribbean surface hydrography during the Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway. Paleoceanography, 21. PA4221. doi:10.1029/2004PA001092 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zaric, S, Schulz, M and Mulitza, S (2006) Global prediction of planktic foraminiferal fluxes from hydrographic and productivity data. Biogeosciences , 3. 187-207. doi:10.5194/bg-3-187-2006

Beckmann, B, Flögel, S, Hofmann, P, Schulz, M and Wagner, T (2005) Orbital forcing of Cretaceaous river discharge in tropical Africa and ocean response. Nature, 437. 241-244. doi:10.1038/nature03976

Butzin, M, Prange, M and Lohmann, G (2005) Radiocarbon simulations for the glacial ocean: The effects of wind stress, Southern Ocean sea ice and Heinrich events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 235. 45-61. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.03.003

Holbourn, AEL, Kuhnt, W, Schulz, M and Erlenkeuser, H (2005) Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature, 438. 483-487. doi:10.1038/nature04123 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Jiang, H, Eiriksson, J, Schulz, M, Knudsen, KL and Seidenkrantz, MS (2005) Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene. Geology, 33(1). 73-76. doi:10.1130/G21130.1

Klocker, A, Prange, M and Schulz, M (2005) Testing the influence of the Central American seaway on orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geophysical Research Letters, 32. L03703. doi:10.1029/2004GL02

Lohmann, G, Lorenz, S and Prange, M (2005) Northern high-latitude climate changes during the Holocene as simulated by circulation models. In: Drange, H, Dokken, T, Furevik, T, Gerdes, R and Berger, WH (eds.) The Nordic Seas: An Integrated Perspective Oceanography, Climatology, Biogeochemistry, and Modeling. Geophysical Monograph, 158. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 273-288. doi:10.1029/GM158

Schulz, M and Prange, M (2005) Schließung der Panama-Passage: Einfluss auf das globale Klimasystem. In: Wissenschaftliche Projekte auf dem HLRN-System 2003-2005. ZIB und RRZN, 57-58.

Schäfer-Neth, C, Paul, A and Mulitza, S (2005) Perspectives on mapping the MARGO reconstructions by variogram analysis/kriging and objective analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(7-9). 1083-1093. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.06.017

Holbourn, AEL, Kuhnt, W and Schulz, M (2004) Orbitally paced climate variability during the middle Miocene: High-resolution benthic stable isotope records from the tropical western Pacific. In: Clift, PD, Wang, P, Kuhnt, W and Hayes, D (eds.) Continent-ocean interactions within East Asian marginal seas. Geophysical Monograph Series, 149. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 321-337. doi:10.1029/149GM17 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Matthies, M, Bickert, T and Paul, A (2004) Last Glacial d13C Distribution and Deep-Sea Circulation in the Atlantic Ocean: A Model - Data Comparison. In: Wefer, G, Mulitza, S and Ratmeyer, V (eds.) The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary: Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 695-722.

Mulitza, S, Donner, B, Fischer, G, Paul, A, Pätzold, J, Rühlemann, C and Segl, M (2004) The South Atlantic oxygen isotope record of planctic foraminifera. In: Wefer, G, Mulitza, S and Ratmeyer, V (eds.) The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary. Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 121-142.

Prange, M, Lohmann, G, Romanova, V and Butzin, M (2004) Modelling tempo-spatial signatures of Heinrich Events: Influence of the climatic background state. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(5-6). 521-527. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.11.004

Prange, M and Schulz, M (2004) A coastal upwelling seesaw in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway. Geophysical Research Letters, 31. L17207. doi:10.1029/2004GL020073

Romanova, V, Prange, M and Lohmann, G (2004) Stability of the glacial thermohaline circulation and its dependence on the background hydrological cycle. Climate Dynamics, 22(5). 527-538. doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0395-z

Rühlemann, C, Mulitza, S, Lohmann, G, Paul, A, Prange, M and Wefer, G (2004) Intermediate depth warming in the tropical Atlantic related to weakened thermohaline circulation: Combining paleoclimate and modeling data for the last deglaciation. Paleoceanography, 19. PA1025. doi:10.1029/2003PA000948 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schulz, M and Paul, A (2004) Sensitivity of the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle to ice-covered and ice-free conditions in the Nordic Seas during the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207(1-2). 127-141. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.005

Schulz, M, Paul, A and Timmermann, A (2004) Glacial-Interglacial Contrast in Climate Variability at Centennial-to-Millennial Timescales: Observations and Conceptual Model. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(20-22). 2219-2230. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.014

Schäfer-Neth, C and Paul, A (2004) The Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum: 1. Objective mapping of the GLAMAP sea-surface conditions. In: Wefer, G, Mulitza, S and Ratmeyer, V (eds.) The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary: Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems. In: Wefer, G; Mulitza, S & Ratmeyer, V (eds.), The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary: Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 531-548. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-18917-3_23

Sima, A, Paul, A and Schulz, M (2004) The Younger Dryas - an intrinsic feature of late Pleistocene climate change at millennial timescales. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222(3-4). 741-750. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.03.026

Mulitza, S, Boltovskoy, D, Donner, B, Meggers, H, Paul, A and Wefer, G (2003) Temperature: d18O relationships of planktic foraminifera collected from surface waters. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 202(1-2). 143-152. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00633-3 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Pahnke, K, Zahn, R, Elderfield, H and Schulz, M (2003) 340,000-Year Centennial-Scale Marine Record of Southern Hemisphere. Science, 301(5635). 948-952. doi:10.1126/science.1084451 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Paul, A and Schäfer-Neth, C (2003) The Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum: 2. Reconstructing the current systems with a global ocean model. In: Wefer, G, Mulitza, S and Ratmeyer, V (eds.) The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary: Reconstruction of Material Budgets and Current Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 549-583. doi:10.1007/BF00286206

Paul, A and Schäfer-Neth, C (2003) Glacial water masses in a global ocean model. Paleoceanography, 18(3). 1058. doi:10.1029/2002PA000783

Prange, M, Lohmann, G and Paul, A (2003) Influence of vertical mixing on the thermohaline hysteresis: analyses of an OGCM. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33(8). 1707-1721. doi:10.1175/2389.1

Prange, M, Lohmann, G, Romanova, V and Butzin, M (2003) Modelling tempo-spatial signatures of Heinrich Events: Influence of the climatic background state. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(5-6). 521-527. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.11.004

Sarnthein, M, van Kreveld, SA, Erlenkeuser, H, Grootes, PM, Kucera, M, Pflaumann, U and Schulz, M (2003) Centennial-to-millennial-scale periodicities of Holocene climate and sediment injections off western Barents shelf, 75°N. Boreas, 32(3). 447-461. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2003.tb01227.x PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Timmermann, A, Gildor, H, Schulz, M and Tziperman, E (2003) Coherent resonant millennial-scale climate oscillations triggered by massive meltwater pulses. Journal of Climate, 16(15). 2569-2585. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2569:CRMCOT>2.0.CO;2

Winter, A, Paul, A, Nyberg, J, Oba, T, Lundberg, J, Schrag, DP and Taggart, B (2003) Orbital control of low-latitude seasonality during the Ecemian. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(4). 1163. doi:10.1029/2002GL016275

Paul, A and Schulz, M (2002) Holocene climate variability on centennial-to-millennial time scales: 2. Internal feedbacks and external forcings as possible causes. In: Wefer, G, Berger, WH, Behre, KE and Jansen, E (eds.) Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 55-73.

Prange, M, Romanova, V and Lohmann, G (2002) The glacial thermohaline circulation: Stable or unstable? Geophysical Research Letters, 29(21). 2028. doi:10.1029/2002GL015337

Schulz, M, Paul, A and Timmermann, A (2002) Relaxation oscillators in concert: A framework for climate change at millennial timescales during the late Pleistocene. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(24). 2193. doi:10.1029/2002GL016144