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Nandini‐Weiss, S. D., Prange, M., Arpe, K., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2020): Past and future impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation in the Caspian Sea catchment area. International Journal of Climatology, 40(5), 2717-2731, doi:10.1002/joc.6362.

Kurahashi-Nakamura, T., Paul, A., Munhoven, G., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2020): Coupling of a sediment diagenesis model (MEDUSA) and an Earth system model (CESM1.2): a contribution toward enhanced marine biogeochemical modelling and long-term climate simulations. Geoscientific Model Development, 13, 825–84, doi:10.5194/gmd-13-825-2020.


Kölling, M., Bouimetarhan, I., Bowles, M.W., Felis, T., Goldhammer, T., Hinrichs, K.U., Schulz, M. and Zabel, M. (2019): Consistent CO2 release by pyrite oxidation on continental shelves prior to glacial terminations. Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0465-9

Völpel, R., Mulitza, S., Paul, A., Lynch-Stieglitz, J. and Schulz, M. (2019): Water mass versus sea level effects on benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios in the Atlantic Ocean during the LGM. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(1), 98-121. doi:10.1029/2018PA003359

Klus, A., Prange, M., Varma, V. and Schulz, M. (2019): Spatial analysis of early-warning signals for a North Atlantic climate transition in a coupled GCM. Climate Dynamics, 53(1-2), 97-113. doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4567-7

Rebotim, A., Voelker, A.H.L., Jonkers, L., Waniek, J.J., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2019): Calcification depth of deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from the eastern North Atlantic constrained by stable oxygen isotope ratios of shells from stratified plankton tows. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 38(2), 113-131. doi:10.5194/jm-38-113-2019


Breitkreuz, C., Paul, A., Kurahashi-Nakamura, T., Losch, M. and Schulz, M. (2018): A dynamical reconstruction of the global monthly mean oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, doi:10.1029/2018JC014300.

Klus, A., Prange, M., Varma, V., Tremblay, L. B. and Schulz, M. (2018): Abrupt cold events in the North Atlantic Ocean in a transient Holocene simulation. Climate of the Past, 14, 1165-1178, doi:10.5194/cp-14-1165-2018.

Kretschmer, K., Jonkers, L., Kucera, M. and Schulz, M. (2018): Modeling seasonal and vertical habitats of planktonic foraminifera on a global scale. Biogeosciences, 15, 4405-4429, doi:10.5194/bg-15-4405-2018.

Frigola, A., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2018): Boundary conditions for the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (MMCT v1.0). Geoscientific Model Development, 11(4), 1607-1626, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1607-2018.


Venancio, I.M., Belem, A..L, Santos, T.P., Lessa, D.O., Albuquerque, A.L.S., Mulitza, S., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2017): Calcification depths of planktonic foraminifera from the southwestern Atlantic derived from oxygen isotope analyses of sediment trap material. Marine Micropaleontology, 136, 37-50, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2017.08.006.

Häggi, C., Chiessi, C.M., Merkel, U., Mulitza, S., Prange, M., Schulz, M. and Schefuß, E. (2017): Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 479, 50-59, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.013.

Rachmayani, R., Prange, M., Lunt, D.J., Stone, E.J. and Schulz, M. (2017): Sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to interglacial climate forcing: MIS 5e versus MIS 11. Paleoceanography, 32(11), 1089-1101, doi:10.1002/2017PA003149.

Völpel, R., Paul, A., Krandick, A., Mulitza, S., and Schulz, M. (2017): Stable water isotopes in the MITgcm. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 3125-3144, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-3125-2017.

Mulitza, S., Chiessi, C.M., Schefuß, E., Lippold, J., Wichmann, D., Antz, B., Mackensen, A., Paul, A., Prange, M., Rehfeld, K., Werner, M., Bickert, T., Frank, N., Kuhnert, H., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Portilho-Ramos, R.C., Sawakuchi, A.O., Schulz, M., Schwenk, T., Tiedemann, R., Vahlenkamp, M. and Zhang, Y. (2017): Synchronous and proportional deglacial changes in Atlantic meridional overturning and northeast Brazilian precipitation. Paleoceanography, 32(6), 622-633, doi:10.1002/2017PA003084.

Erokhina, O., Rogozhina, I., Prange, M., Bakker, P., Bernales, J. Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (2017): Dependence of slope lapse rate over the Greenland ice sheet on background climate. Journal of Glaciology, 63 (239), 568-572. doi:10.1017/jog.2017.10

Rebotim, A., Voelker, A. H. L., Jonkers, L., Waniek, J. J., Meggers, H., Schiebel, R., Fraile, I., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2017): Factors controlling the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859. doi:10.5194/bg-14-827-2017

Gronholz, A., Gräwe, U., Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (2017): Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Ocean Dynamics, 67, 211–235. doi:10.1007/s10236-016-1023-2


Varma, V., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2016): Transient simulations of the present and the last interglacial climate using the Community Climate System Model version 3: effects of orbital acceleration. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(11), 3859-3873, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3859-2016.

Venancio, I. M., Franco, D., Belem, A. L., Mulitza, S., Siccha, M., Albuquerque, A. L. S., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2016): Planktonic foraminifera shell fluxes from a weekly resolved sediment trap record in the southwestern Atlantic: Evidence for synchronized reproduction. Marine Micropaleontology, 125, 25-35, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2016.03.003.

Kretschmer, K., Kucera, M. and Schulz, M. (2016): Modeling the distribution and seasonality of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the North Atlantic Ocean during Heinrich Stadial 1. Paleoceanography, 31 (7), 986-1010, doi:10.1002/2015PA002819.

Berger, A., Crucifix, M., Hodell, D. A., Mangili, C., McManus, J. F. Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Pol, K., Raynaud, D. Skinner, L. C., Tzedakis, P. C., Wolff, E. W., Yin, Q. Z., Abe-Ouchi, A., Barbante, C., Brovkin, V., Cacho, I., Capron, E., Ferretti, P., Ganopolski, A., Grimalt, J. O., Hönisch, B., Kawamura, K., Landaais, A., Margari, V., Martrat, B., Masson-Delmotte, V., Mokkedem, Z., Parrenin, F., Prokopenko, A. A. Rashid, H., Schulz, M. and Riveiros, N. V. (2016): Interglacials of the last 800,000 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 54(1), 162-219, doi:10.1002/2015RG000482.

Jung, G., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2016): Influence of topography on tropical African vegetation coverage. Climate Dynamics, 46, 2535–2549, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2716-9.

Olafsdottir, K. B., Schulz, M. and Mudelsee, M. (2016): REDFIT-X: Cross-spectral analysis of unevenly spaced paleoclimate time series. Computers and Geosciences, 91, 11-18, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2016.03.001 / download programm

Rachmayani, R., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2016): Intra-interglacial climate variability: Model simulations of Marine Isotope Stages 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. Climate of the Past, 12, 677–695, doi:10.5194/cp-12-677-2016.

Johnstone, H.J.H., Lee W. and Schulz, M. (2016): Effect of preservation state of planktonic foraminifera tests on the decrease in Mg/Ca due to reductive cleaning and on sample loss during cleaning. Chemical Geology, 420, 23-36, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.10.045.

Past Interglacials Working Group of PAGES (2016): Interglacials of the last 800,000 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 54, doi:10.1002/2015RG000482.


Zhang, X., Prange, M., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2015): Spatial fingerprint and magnitude of changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 1903–1911, doi:10.1002/2014GL063003.

Rachmanyani, R., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2015): North African vegetation–precipitation feedback in early and mid-Holocene climate simulations with CCSM3-DGVM. Climate of the Past, 11, 175–185, doi:10.5194/cp-11-175-2015.


Schulz, M. and Paul, A., Eds. (2014): Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 139 pp. Content

Jung, G., Prange, M., and Schulz, M. (2014): Uplift of Africa as a potential cause for Neogene intensification of the Benguela upwelling system. Nature Geoscience, 7, 741-747, doi:10.1038/ngeo2249.

Bakker, P., Masson-Delmotte, V., Martrat, B., Charbit, S., Renssen, H., Gröger, M., Krebs-Kanzow, U., Lohmann, G., Lunt, D. J., Pfeiffer, M., Phipps, S. J., Prange, M., Ritz, S. P., Schulz, M., Stenni, B., Stone, E. J., and Varma, V. (2014): Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods – a multi-model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 99, 224-243, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.031 .

Johnstone, H.J.H., Kiefer, T., Elderfield, H. and Schulz, M. (2014): Calcite saturation, foraminiferal test mass and Mg/Ca based temperatures dissolution-corrected using XDX - a 150 ka record from the western Indian Ocean. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 15, 781-797, doi:10.1002/2013GC004994.

Pol, K., Masson-Delmotte, V., Cattani, O., Debret, M., Falourd, S., Jouzel, J., Landais, A., Minster, B., Mudelsee, M., Schulz, M., Stenni, B. (2014): Climate variability features of the last interglacial in the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice core. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 4004–4012, doi:10.1002/2014GL059561.

Zhang, X., Prange, M., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2014): Instability of the Atlantic overturning circulation during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 4, doi:10.1002/2014GL060321.


Masson-Delmotte, V., Schulz, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Beer, J., Ganopolski, A., Rouco, J.F.G., Jansen, E., Lambeck, K., Luterbacher, J., Naish, T., Osborn, T., Otto-Bliesner, B., Quinn, T., Ramesh, R., Rojas, M., Shao, X. and Timmermann, A. (2013): Information from Paleoclimate Archives. In: T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (Editors) (2013), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 383-464.

Milker, Y., Rachmayani, R., Weinkauf, M.F.G., Prange, M., Raitzsch, M., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2013) , Global and regional sea surface temperature trends during Marine Isotope Stage 11, Climate of the Past, 9, 2231-2252, doi:10.5194/cp-9-2231-2013.

Chu, K., C. Winter, D. Hebbeln, and M. Schulz (2013): Improvement of morphodynamic modeling of tidal channel migration by nudging. Coastal Engineering, 77, 1-13, doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.02.004.

Bakker, P., E. J. Stone, S. Charbit, M. Gröger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, S. P. Ritz, V. Varma, S. Khon, D. J. Lunt, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Prange, H. Renssen, B. Schneider, and M. Schulz (2013): Last interglacial temperature evolution - a model inter-comparison: Climate of the Past, 9, 605-619, doi:10.5194/cp-9-605-2013.


Seidenglanz, A., M. Prange, V. Varma, and M. Schulz (2012): Ocean temperature response to idealized Gleissberg and de Vries solar cycles in a comprehensive climate model. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L22602, doi:10.1029/2012GL053624.

Varma, V., M. Prange, T. Spangehl, F. Lamy, U. Cubasch, and M. Schulz (2012): Impact of solar-induced stratospheric ozone decline on Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Late Maunder Minimum. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L20704, doi:10.1029/2012GL053403.

Huang, E., S. Mulitza, A. Paul, J. Groeneveld, S. Steinke, and M. Schulz (2012): Response of the eastern tropical Atlantic central waters to meridional overturning circulation changes during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadial 1. Paleoceanography, 27, PA3229, doi:10.1029/2012PA002294.

Felis, T., U. Merkel, R. Asami, P. Deschamps, E. C. Hathorne, M. Kölling, E. Bard, G. Cabioch, N. Durand, M. Prange, M. Schulz, S. Y. Cahyarini, and M. Pfeiffer (2012): Pronounced interannual variability in tropical South Pacific temperatures during Heinrich stadial 1. Nature Communications, 3, 965, doi:10.1038/ncomms1973 / Supplementary Material.

Varma, V., M. Prange, U. Merkel, T. Kleinen, G. Lohmann, M. Pfeiffer, H. Renssen, A. Wagner, S. Wagner, and M. Schulz (2012): Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models. Climate of the Past, 8, 391-402, doi:10.5194/cp-8-391-2012.

Zhang X., M. Prange, S. Steph, M. Butzin, U. Krebs, D. Lunt, K. H. Nisancioglu, W. Park, A. Schmittner, B. Schneider, M. Schulz (2012): Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian Seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-318, 76-84, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.028.


Chu, K., C. Winter, D. Hebbeln, and M. Schulz (2011): Optimization Scheme for Coastal Morphodynamic Model. Journal of Coastal Research, SI64, 736-740. Reprint

Morley, A., M. Schulz, Y. Rosenthal, S. Mulitza, A. Paul, and C. Rühlemann (2011): Solar modulation of North Atlantic central Water formation at multidecadal timescales during the late Holocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 308, 161-171, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.043.

Johnstone, H. J. H., J. Yu, H. Elderfield, and M. Schulz (2011): Improving temperature estimates derived from Mg/Ca of planktonic foraminifera using X-ray computed tomography-based dissolution index, XDX. Paleoceanography, 26, PA1215, doi:10.1029/2009PA001902.

Varma, V., Prange, M., Lamy, F., Merkel, U., and Schulz M. (2011): Solar-forced shifts of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Holocene. Climate of the Past, 7, 339-347, doi:10.5194/cp-7-339-2011, Corrigendum.

Collins, J. A., E. Schefuß, D. Heslop, S. Mulitza, M. Prange, M. Zabel, R. Tjallingii, T. M. Dokken, E. Huang, A. Mackensen, M. Schulz, J. Tian, M. Zarriess, and G. Wefer (2011): Interhemispheric symmetry of the tropical African rainbelt over the past 23,000 years. Nature Geoscience, 4, 42-45, doi:10.1038/ngeo1039 / Supplementary Material.


Lopes dos Santos, R., M. Prange, I. S. Castañeda, E. Schefuß, S. Mulitza, M. Schulz, E. M. Niedermeyer, J. S. S. Damsté, and S. Schouten (2010): Glacial-interglacial variability in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and thermocline adjustments in the tropical North Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300, 407-414, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.030.

Niedermeyer, E. M., E. Schefuß, A. L. Sessions, S. Mulitza, G. Mollenhauer, M. Schulz, and G. Wefer (2010): Orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the hydrologic cycle and vegetation in the western African Sahel: Insights from individual plant wax δD and δ13C, Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 2996-3005, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.039.

Narayan, N., A. Paul, S. Mulitza, and M. Schulz (2010): Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century. Ocean Science, 6, 815-823, doi:10.5194/os-6-815-2010.

Langebroek, P., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2010): Simulating the sea-level imprint on marine oxygen-isotope records during the Middle Miocene using an ice sheet-climate model. Paleoceanography, 25, PA4204, doi:10.1029/2008PA001704.

Johnstone, H. J. H., Schulz, M., Barker, and H. Elderfield (2010): Inside story: An X-ray computed tomography method for assessing dissolution in the tests of planktonic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 77, 58-70, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2010.07.004.

Berger, W. H., M. Schulz and G. Wefer (2010): Quaternary Oceans and Climate Change: Lessons for the Future? International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99 (Suppl. 1), S171-S189, doi:10.1007/s00531-010-0553-y.

Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, M. Regenberg, M. Schulz, A. Mix and N. Andersen, N. (2010): Does Antarctic glaciation force migration of the tropical rain belt? Geology, 38, 783-786, doi:10.1130/G31043.1.

Bamberg, A., Y. Rosenthal, A. Paul, D. Heslop, S. Mulitza, C. Rühlemann, and M. Schulz (2010): Reduced North Atlantic Central Water formation in response to early Holocene ice sheet melting. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L17705, doi:10.1029/2010GL043878.

Mulitza, S., D. Heslop, D. Pittauerova, H. W. Fischer, I. Meyer, J.-B. Stuut, M. Zabel, G. Mollenhauer, J. A. Collins, H. Kuhnert, and M. Schulz (2010): Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Nature, 466, 226-228, doi:10.1038/nature09213 / Supplementary Material

Prange, M., S. Steph, M. Schulz, and L. Keigwin (2010): Inferring moisture transport across Central America: Can modern analogs of climate variability help reconcile paleosalinity records? Quaternary Science Reviews., 29, 1317-1321, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.029.

Steph, S., R. Tiedemann, M. Prange, J. Groeneveld, M. Schulz, A. Timmermann, D. Nürnberg, C. Saukel, and G. H. Haug (2010): Early Pliocene increase in thermohaline overturning preconditioned the development of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue. Paleoceanography, 25, PA2202, doi:10.1029/2008PA001645, doi:10.1029/2008PA001645.

Merkel, U., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2010): ENSO variability and teleconnections during glacial climates. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 86-100, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.006.

Timmermann, A., Menviel, L., Okumura, Y., Schilla, A., Merkel, U., Timm, O., Hu, A., Otto-Bliesner, B. and Schulz, M. (2010): Towards a quantitative understanding of millennial-scale Antarctic warming events. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 74-85, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.06.021.

Prange, M., J. Jongma, and M. Schulz (2010): Centennial-to-millennial-scale Holocene climate variability in the North Atlantic region induced by noise. In: Stochastic Physics and Climate Modelling, edited by: Palmer, T. and Williams, P., Cambridge University Press, 307-326.


Niedermeyer, E. M., Prange, M., Mulitza, S., Mollenhauer, G., Schefuß, E. and Schulz, M. (2009): Extratropical forcing of Sahel aridity during Heinrich stadials. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L20707, doi:10.1029/2009GL039687.

Langebroek, P., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2009): Antarctic ice-sheet response to atmospheric CO2 and insolation in the Middle Miocene. Climate of the Past, 5, 633-646, doi:10.5194/cp-5-633-2009

Fraile, I., Schulz, M., Mulitza, S., Merkel, U., Prange, M. and Paul, A. (2009): Modeling the seasonal distribution of planktonic foraminifera during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoeceanography, 24, PA2216, doi:10.1029/2008PA001686.

Fraile, I., S. Mulitza, and M. Schulz (2009): Modeling planktonic foraminiferal seasonality: Implications for sea-surface temperature reconstructions. Marine Micropaleontology, 72, 1-9, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2009.01.003.

Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, J. M. Lough, T. D. v. Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki (2009): High-resolution paleoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. The Holocene, 19, 3-49, doi: 10.1177/0959683608098952.


Mulitza, S., M. Prange, J.-B. W. Stuut, M. Zabel, T. von Dobeneck, A. C. Itambi, J. Nizou, M. Schulz, and G. Wefer (2008): Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning. Paleoceanography, 23, PA4206, doi:10.1029/2008PA001637.

Franke, J., M. Schulz, A. Paul, and J. Adkins (2008): Assessing the Ability of the 14C Projection-Age Method to Constrain the Circulation of the Past in a 3D Ocean Model. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q08003, doi:10.1029/2008GC001943.

Franke, J., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2008): Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45,000 years. Climate of the Past, 4, 125-136, doi:10.5194/cp-4-125-2008 / Supplementary Material / Online Reservoirage Database

Fraile, I., M. Schulz, S. Mulitza, and M. Kucera (2008): Predicting the global distribution of planktonic foraminifera using a dynamic ecosystem model. Biogeosciences, 5, 891-911, doi:10.5194/bg-5-891-2008.


Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, M. Schulz, J.-A. Flores and N. Andersen (2007): Orbitally-paced climate evolution during the middle Miocene "Monterey" carbon-isotope excursion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261, 534-550, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.026 .

Jongma, J. I., M. Prange, H. Renssen, and M. Schulz (2007): Amplification of Holocene multicentennial climate forcing by mode transitions in North Atlantic overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L15706, doi:10.1029/2007GL030642 / Supplementary Material

Schulz, M., Prange, M., and A. Klocker (2007): Low-frequency oscillations of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation in a coupled climate model. Climate of the Past, 3, 97-107, doi:10.5194/cp-3-97-2007 .


Steph, S., R. Tiedemann, M. Prange, J. Groeneveld, D. Nürnberg, L. Reuning, M. Schulz, and G. Haug (2006): Changes in Caribbean surface hydrography during the Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway. Paleoceanography, 21, PA4221, doi:10.1029/2004PA001092.

Sima, A., A. Paul, M. Schulz and H. Oerlemans (2006): Modeling the oxygen-isotopic composition of the North American Ice Sheet and its effect on the isotopic composition of the ocean during the last glacial cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L15706, doi:10.1029/2006GL026923 / Supplementary Material .

Zaric, S., Schulz, M. and Mulitza, S. (2006): Global prediction of planktic foraminiferal fluxes from hydrographic and productivity data. Biogeosciences, 3, 187-207, doi:10.5194/bg-3-187-2006 .


Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Schulz, M. and Erlenkeuser, E. (2005): Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature, 438, 483-487, doi:10.1038/nature04123 / Supplementary Material

Beckmann, B., Flögel, S., Hofmann, P., Schulz, M. and Wagner, T. (2005): Orbital forcing of Cretaceous river discharge in tropical Africa and ocean response. Nature, 437, 241-244, doi:10.1038/nature03976 / Supplementary Material

Klocker, A., M. Prange and M. Schulz (2005): Testing the influence of the Central American Seaway on orbitally forced northern hemisphere glaciation. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(3), L03703, doi:10.1029/2004GL021564.

Jiang, H., J. Eiriksson, M. Schulz, K.-L. Knudsen and M. S. Seidenkrantz (2005): Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene. Geology, 33, 73-76, doi:10.1130/G21130.1 .


Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, and M. Schulz (2004): Orbitally paced climate variability during the middle Miocene: High-resolution benthic stable isotope records from the tropical western Pacific. In Continent-ocean interactions within east Asian marginal seas, edited by Clift, P., W. Kuhnt, P. Wang and D. Hayes, pp. 321-337, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, doi:10.1029/149GM17 .

Schulz, M., Paul, A. and Timmermann, A. (2004): Glacial-Interglacial Contrast in Climate Variability at Centennial-to-Millennial Timescales: Observations and Conceptual Model. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23, 2219-2230, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.014 .

Prange, M. and M. Schulz (2004): A coastal upwelling-seesaw in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L17207, doi:10.1029/2004GL020073. / Accompanying Pages Newsletter Article

Sima, A., A. Paul and M. Schulz (2004): The Younger Dryas - an intrinsic feature of late Pleistocene climate change at millennial timescales. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222, 741-750, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.03.026 .

Schulz, M. and Paul, A. (2004): Sensitivity of the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle to ice-covered and ice-free conditions in the Nordic Seas during the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207,127-141, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.005 .


Sarnthein, M., van Kreveld, S., Erlenkeuser, H., Grootes, P.M., Kucera, M., Pflaumann, U. and Schulz, M. (2003): Centennial-to-millennial-scale periodicities of Holocene climate and sediment injections off the western Barents shelf, 75°N. Boreas, 32, 447-461, doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2003.tb01227.x .

Pahnke, K., R. Zahn, H. Elderfield and M. Schulz (2003): 340,000 Year centennial-scale marine record of southern hemisphere climatic oscillation. Science, 301, 948-952, doi:10.1126/science.1084451 / Supplementary Material

Timmermann, A., Gildor, H., Schulz, M. and Tziperman, E. (2003): Coherent resonant millennial-scale climate oscillations triggered by massive meltwater pulses. Journal of Climate, 16, 2569-2585, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)0162.0.CO;2 .


Schulz, M., Paul, A. and Timmermann, A. (2002): Relaxation oscillators in concert: A framework for climate change at millennial timescales during the late Pleistocene. Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (24), doi:10.1029/2002GL016144 .

Kiefer, T., Lorenz, S., Schulz, M., Lohmann, G., Sarnthein, M. and Elderfield, H. (2002): Response of precipitation over Greenland and the adjacent ocean to North Pacific warm spells during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials. Terra Nova, 14, 295-300, doi:10.1046/j.1365-3121.2002.00420.x .

Schulz, M. (2002): On the 1470-year pacing of Dansgaard-Oeschger warm events. Paleoceanography, 17 (3), doi:10.1029/2000PA000571 .

Schulz, M. and Mudelsee, M. (2002): REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Computers and Geosciences, 28, 421-426, doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(01)00044-9 / download programm

Schulz, M. (2002): The tempo of climate change during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials and its potential to affect the manifestation of the 1470-year climate cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (1), doi:10.1029/2001GL013277.

Schulz, M. and Paul, A. (2002): Holocene climate variability on centennial-to-millennial time scales: 1. Climate records from the North-Atlantic realm. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 41-54, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-04965-5_4 . Reprint available

Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (2002): Holocene climate variability on centennial-to-millennial time scales: 2. Internal feedbacks and external forcings as possible causes. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 55-73. Reprint available

Schulz, M., Berger, W. H., Baillie, M., Luterbacher, J., Meincke, J., Negendank, J. F. W., Paul, A. and Ramseier, R. O. (2002): Tracing climate-variability: the search for climate dynamics on decadal to millennial time scales. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 125-148, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-04965-5_9 .

Hinnov, L. A., Schulz, M. and Yiou, P. (2002): Interhemispheric space-time attributes of the Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations between 100 and 0 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1213-1228, doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00140-8 / Supplementary Material

Helmke, J. P., Schulz, M. and Bauch, H. A. (2002): Sediment-color record from the northeast Atlantic reveals patterns of millennial-scale climate variability during the past 500,000 years. Quaternary Research, 57, 49-57, doi:10.1006/qres.2001.2289 .


Sarnthein, M., Stattegger, K., Dreger, D., Erlenkeuser, H., Grootes, P., Haupt, B. J., Jung, S., Kiefer, T., Kuhnt, W., Pflaumann, U., Schäfer-Neth, C., Schulz, H., Schulz, M., Seidov, D., Simstich, J., van Kreveld, S., Vogelsang, E., Völker, A. and Weinelt, M. (2001): Fundamental modes and abrupt changes in North Atlantic circulation and climate over the last 60 ky - Concepts, reconstructions and numerical modeling. In: Schäfer, P., Ritzrau, W., Schlüter, M. and Thiede, J. (eds.), The Northern North Atlantic: A changing environment. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 365-410, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56876-3_21 .

Schulz, M., Seidov, D., Sarnthein, M. and Stattegger, K. (2001): Modeling ocean-atmosphere carbon budgets during the Last Glacial Maximum - Heinrich 1 Meltwater Event - Bølling transition. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 412-425, doi:10.1007/s005310000136 .

2000 and before

Lohmann, G. and Schulz, M. (2000): Reconciling Bølling warmth with peak deglacial meltwater discharge. Paleoceanography, 15, 537-540, doi:10.1029/1999PA000471 .

Hay, W. W., DeConto, R. M., Wold, C. N., Wilson, K. M., Voigt, S., Schulz, M., Rossby-Wold, A., Dullo, W.-C., Ronov, A. B., Balukhovsky, A. N. and Söding, E. (1999): Alternative global Cretaceous paleogeography. In: Barrera, E. and Johnson, C. C. (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous ocean-climate system, Special Paper, 332. Geological Society of America, Boulder, 1-47. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2332-9.1 .

Schulz, M., Berger, W. H., Sarnthein, M. and Grootes, P. M. (1999): Amplitude variations of 1470-year climate oscillations during the last 100,000 years linked to fluctuations of continental ice mass. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3385-3388, doi:10.1029/1999GL006069 .

Mudelsee, M. and Schulz, M. (1997): The Mid-Pleistocene climate transition: onset of 100 ka cycle lags ice volume build-up by 280 ka. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 151, 117-123, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00114-3 .

Schulz, M. and Stattegger, K. (1997): SPECTRUM: Spectral analysis of unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Computers and Geosciences, 23, 929-945, doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(97)00087-3 / download program .

Schulz, M. and Schäfer-Neth, C. (1997): Translating Milankovitch climate forcing into eustatic fluctuations via thermal deep water expansion: a conceptual link. Terra Nova, 9, 228-231, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.1997.tb00018.x .

Schulz, M., Wold, C. N., Ronov, A. B. and Hay, W. W. (1995): A forward and inverse transformation program for the 'Atlas of Lithological-Palaeogeographical Maps of the World'. Computers and Geosciences, 21, 907-911, doi:10.1016/0098-3004(95)00024-3 / download program .

Schulz, M., Mudelsee, M. and Wolf-Welling, T. C. W. (1994): Fractal analyses of Pleistocene marine oxygen isotope records. In: Kruhl, J. H. (ed.), Fractals and dynamic systems in geosciences. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 307-317, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-07304-9_29 .

Pollard, D. and Schulz, M. (1994): A model for the potential locations of Triassic evaporite basins driven by paleoclimatic GCM simulations. Global and Planetary Change, 9, 233-249, doi:10.1016/0921-8181(94)90018-3 .