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Dr. Martin Kölling

Research Staff

Group: 

Sediment Geochemistry

Phone: 

+49 421 218-65111

Fax:

+49 421 218-9865111

Email:

Room: 

NW2-C / C 2340

Martin Kölling

useful links

Expeditions

 

Publications

Haßler, K, Dähnke, K, Kölling, M, Sichoix, L, Nickl, AL and Moosdorf, N (2019) Provenance of nutrients in submarine fresh groundwater discharge on Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. Applied Geochemistry, 100. 181-189. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.11.020 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Brocas, WM, Felis, T, Gierz, P, Lohmann, G, Werner, M, Obert, JC, Scholz, D, Kölling, M and Scheffers, SR (2018) Last interglacial hydroclimate seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 33. 198-213. doi:10.1002/2017PA003216 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Felis, T, Ionita, M, Rimbu, N, Lohmann, G and Kölling, M (2018) Mild and arid climate in the eastern Sahara-Arabian Desert during the late Little Ice Age. Geophysical Research Letters, 45. 7112-7119. doi:10.1029/2018GL078617 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Molina-Kescher, M, Hathorne, EC, Osborne, AH, Behrens, MK, Kölling, M, Pahnke, K and Frank, M (2018) The influence of basaltic islands on the oceanic REE distribution: a case study from the tropical South Pacific. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00050 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Romano, S, Bondarev, V, Kölling, M, Dittmar, T and Schulz-Vogt, HN (2017) Phosphate limitation triggers the dissolution of precipitated iron by the marine bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. FO-BEG1. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.00364

Strasser, M, Kopf, AJ, Abegg, F, Asada, M, Bachmann, AK, Cuno, P, Dos Santos Ferreira, C, Fleischmann, T, Fujiware, T, Hatakeyama, E, Heesemann, BR, Hillman, JIT, Hoehne, M, Huusmann, H, Ikari, MJ, Ikehara, K, Jaeger, FD, Kanamatsu, T, Kang, MH, Kaul, NE, Kioka, A, Kölling, M, Lange, K, Luebben, N, Matthiessen, T, Mchugh, CM, Meier, A, Menapace, W, Mochizuki, K, Moernaut, J, Molenaar, AW, Moore, GF, Mu, LJ, Nakano, Y, Pieper, M, Rex, MLPA, Usami, K, Wiemer, G and Yamaguchi, A (2017) Report and preliminary results of R/V SONNE cruise SO251, Extreme events Archived in the GEological Record of Japan's Subduction margins (EAGER-Japan), Leg A SO251-1, Yokohama - Yokohama, 04.10.2016 – 15.10.2016, Leg B SO251- 2, Yokohama - Yokohama, 18.10.2016 – 02.11.2016. Berichte, MARUM – Zentrum für Marine Umweltwissenschaften, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, 318. 1-217. urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00106515-12

Wu, HC, Felis, T, Scholz, D, Giry, C, Kölling, M, Jochum, KP and Scheffers, SR (2017) Changes to Yucatán Peninsula precipitation associated with salinity and temperature extremes of the Caribbean Sea during the Maya civilization collapse. Scientific Reports, 7. 15825. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15942-0 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Brocas, WM, Felis, T, Obert, JC, Gierz, P, Lohmann, G, Scholz, D, Kölling, M and Scheffers, SR (2016) Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 449. 418-429. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.06.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Fraile, I, Arrizabalaga, H, Groeneveld, J, Kölling, M, Santos, MN, Macías, D, Addis, P, Dettman, DL, Karakulak, S, Deguara, S and Rooker, JR (2016) The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths. Journal of Marine Systems, 158. 26-33. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.12.012

Felis, T, Giry, C, Scholz, D, Lohmann, G, Pfeiffer, M, Pätzold, J, Kölling, M and Scheffers, SR (2015) Tropical Atlantic temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial. Nature Communications, 6. 6159. doi:10.1038/ncomms7159 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kölling, M, Lull, V, Micó, R, Rihuete Herrada, C and Risch, R (2015) No indication of increased temperatures around 2200 BC in the south-west Mediterranean derived from oxygen isotope ratios in marine clams (Glycymeris sp.) from the El Argar settlement of Gatas, south-east Iberia. In: Meller, H, Arz, HW, Jung, R and Risch, R (eds.) 2200 BC - A climatic breakdown as a cause for the collapse of the old world? 7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany October 23-26, 2014 in Hallo (Saale), 12/I. Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, 449-460.

Fink, HG, Strasser, M, Römer, M, Kölling, M, Ikehara, K, Kanamatsu, T, Dinten, D, Kioka, A, Fujiwara, T, Kawamura, K, Kodaira, S and Wefer, G (2014) Evidence for mass transport deposits at the IODP JFAST-Site in the Japan Trench. In: Krastel, S, Behrmann, JH, Völker, D, Stipp, M, Berndt, C, Urgeles, R, Chaytor, J, Huhn, K, Strasser, M and Bonnevie Harbitz, C (eds.) Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, 37. Springer International Publishing, 33-43. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-00972-8_4 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wefer, G, Strasser, M, Besuden, E, Büttner, H, Diekamp, V, Dinten, D, dos Santos Ferreira, C, Fink, HG, Franke, P, Fujiwara, T, Geprägs, P, Ikehara, K, Ishitsuka, K, Kanamatsu, T, Kawamura, K, Kimura, T, Kioka, A, Kitada, K, Klar, S, Kölling, M, Kopiske, E, Mai, HA, Marcon, Y, Meinecke, G, Meyer, P, Osada, Y, Podszun, L, Ratmeyer, V, Renken, J, Römer, M, Sato, T, Schmidt, W, Seiter, C, Wangenheim, L and Zarrouk, M (2014) Report and preliminary results of R/V SONNE Cruise SO219A, Tohoku-Oki Earthquake - Japan Trench, Yokohama - Yokohama, 08.03.2012 - 06.04.2012. Berichte, MARUM – Zentrum für Marine Umweltwissenschaften, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen(301). urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00103574-16

Giry, C, Felis, T, Kölling, M, Wei, W, Lohmann, G and Scheffers, S (2013) Controls of Caribbean surface hydrology during the mid- to late Holocene: insights from monthly resolved coral records. Climate of the Past, 9. 841-858. doi:10.5194/cp-9-841-2013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hathorne, EC, Gagnon, A, Felis, T, Adkins, J, Asami, R, Boer, W, Caillon, N, Case, D, Cobb, KM, Douville, E, deMenocal, P, Eisenhauer, A, Garbe-Schönberg, D, Geibert, W, Goldstein, S, Hughen, K, Inoue, M, Kawahata, H, Kölling, M, Cornec, FL, Linsley, BK, McGregor, HV, Montagna, P, Nurhati, IS, Quinn, TM, Raddatz, J, Rebaubier, H, Robinson, L, Sadekov, A, Sherrell, R, Sinclair, D, Tudhope, AW, Wei, G, Wong, H, Wu, HC and You, CF (2013) Interlaboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(9). 3730-3750. doi:10.1002/ggge.20230

Strasser, M, Kölling, M, dos Santos Ferreira, C, Fink, HG, Fujiwara, T, Henkel, S, Ikehara, K, Kanamatsu, T, Kawamura, K, Kodaira, S, Römer, M, Wefer, G, R/V Sonne Cruise SO219A scientists and JAMSTEC Cruise MR12-E01 scientists (2013) A slump in the trench: Tracking the impact of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Geology, 41(8). 935-938. doi:10.1130/G34477.1 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Felis, T, Merkel, U, Asami, R, Deschamps, P, Hathorne, EC, Kölling, M, Bard, E, Cabioch, G, Durand, N, Prange, M, Schulz, M, Cahyarini, SY and Pfeiffer, M (2012) Pronounced interannual variability in tropical South Pacific temperatures during Heinrich Stadial 1. Nature Communications, 3. 965. doi:10.1038/ncomms1973 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Giry, C, Felis, T, Kölling, M, Scholz, D, Wei, W, Lohmann, G and Scheffers, S (2012) Mid- to late Holocene changes in tropical Atlantic temperature seasonality and interannual to multidecadal variability documented in southern Caribbean corals. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 331(332). 187-200. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.03.019 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Haarmann, T, Hathorne, EC, Mohtadi, M, Groeneveld, J, Kölling, M and Bickert, T (2011) Mg/Ca ratios of single planktonic foraminifer shells and the potential to reconstruct the thermal seasonality of the water column. Paleoceanography, 26. PA3218. doi:10.1029/2010PA002091 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Giry, C, Felis, T, Kölling, M and Scheffers, S (2010) Geochemistry and skeletal structure of Diploria strigosa, implications for coral-based climate reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298. 378-387. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.10.022 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

O'Regan, M, Moran, K, Baxter, CDP, Cartwright, J, Vogt, C and Kölling, M (2010) Towards ground truthing exploration in the central Arctic Ocean: a Cenozoic compaction history from the Lomonosov Ridge. Basin Research, 22(2). 215-235. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2117.2009.00403.x

Kölling, M, Webster, JM, Camoin, G, Iryu, Y, Bard, E and Seard, C (2009) SEALEX - Internal reef chronology and virtual drill logs from a spreadsheet-based reef growth model. Global and Planetary Change, 66(1-2). 149-159. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.07.011

Dickens, GR, Kölling, M, Smith, DC, Schnieders, L and IODP Expedition 302 Scientists (2007) Rhizon Sampling of Pore Waters on Scientific Drilling Expeditions: An Example from the IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX). Scientific Drilling, 4. 22-25. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.4.08.2007

Tjallingii, R, Röhl, U, Kölling, M and Bickert, T (2007) Influence of the water content on X-ray fluorescence core- scanning measurements in soft marine sediments. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 8(2). Q02004. doi:10.1029/2006GC001393 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wien, K, Kölling, M and Schulz, HD (2007) Age models for the Cape Blanc Debris Flow and the Mauritania Slide Complex in the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(19-21). 2558-2573. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.06.018

Weldeab, S, Schneider, RR and Kölling, M (2006) Comparison of foraminiferal cleaning procedures for Mg/Ca paleothermometry on core material deposited under varying terrigenous-input and bottom water conditions. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 7. Q04P12. doi:10.1029/2005GC000990

Weldeab, S, Schneider, RR and Kölling, M (2006) Deglacial sea surface temperature and salinity increase in the western tropical Atlantic in synchrony with high latitude climate instabilities. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 241. 699-706. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wien, K, Holz, C, Kölling, M and Schulz, HD (2006) Age models for pelagites and turbidites from the Cap Timiris Canyon off Mauritania. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 23. 337-352. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.10.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Seeberg-Elverfeldt, J, Schlüter, M, Feseker, T and Kölling, M (2005) Rhizon sampling of pore waters near the sediment/water interface of aquatic systems. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 3. 361-371. doi:10.4319/lom.2005.3.361 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Weldeab, S, Schneider, RR, Kölling, M and Wefer, G (2005) Holocene African droughts relate to eastern equatorial Atlantic cooling. Geology, 33(12). 981-984. doi:10.1130/G21874.1 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wien, K, Kölling, M and Schulz, HD (2005) Close correlation between Sr/Ca ratios in bulk sediments from the Southern Cape Basin and the SPECMAP record. Geo-Marine Letters, 25(4). 265-271. doi:10.1007/s00367-005-0211-8 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Wien, K, Wissmann, D, Kölling, M and Schulz, HD (2005) Fast application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry aboard ship: how good is the portable new Spectro Xepos analyser? Geo-Marine Letters, 25(4). 248-264. doi:10.1007/s00367-004-0206-x PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Krastel, S, Hanebuth, TJJ, Antobreh, AA, Wynn, RB, Henrich, R, Holz, C, Kölling, M, Schulz, HD and Wien, K (2004) Cap Timiris Canyon: a newly discovered channel-system off Mauritania. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(42). 417-432. doi:10.1029/2004EO420001

Kölling, M (1990) Modellierung geochemischer Prozesse im Sickerwasser und Grundwasser. Berichte aus dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften der Universität Bremen, 008. Department of Geosciences, Bremen University. urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-ep000101479

Other Publications (not in Pangaea)

Kölling, M., Lull, V., Micó, R., Rihuete Herrada, C., Risch, R. (2015): No indication of increased temperatures around 2200BC in the south-west Mediterranean derived from oxygen isotope ratios in marine clams (Glycymeris sp.) from the El Argar settlement of Gatas, south-east Iberia. Chapter In: Meller, H., Arz H.W., Jung, R., Risch, R. (2015): 2200 BC – A climatic breakdown as a cause for the collapse of the old world? 7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany October 23–26, 2014 in Halle (Saale). Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle 12/I, 449-460.

Geochemistry part in: Expedition 325 Scientists, 2011. Methods. In Webster, J.M., Yokoyama, Y., Cotterill, C., and the Expedition 325 Scientists, Proc. IODP, 325: Tokyo (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.325.102.2011
Geochemistry part in: Expedition 313 Scientists, 2010. Methods. In Mountain, G., Proust, J.-N., McInroy, D., Cotterill, C., and the Expedition 313 Scientists, Proc. IODP, 313: Tokyo (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.313.102.2010
Geochemistry part in: Expedition 310 Scientists, 2007. Methods. In Camoin, G.F., Iryu, Y., McInroy, D.B., and the Expedition 310 Scientists. Proc. IODP, 310: Washington, DC (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.310.103.2007
Geochemistry part in: Expedition 302 Scientists, 2006. Methods. In Backman, J., Moran, K., McInroy, D.B., Mayer, L.A., and the Expedition 302 Scientists, Proc. IODP, 302: Edinburgh (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/​iodp.proc.302.103.2006null

Arning, E., Kölling, M., Schulz, H.D., Panteleit, B., Reichling, J. (2006): Einfluss oberflächennaher Wärmegewinnung auf geochemische Prozesse im Grundwasserleiter.- Grundwasser 11, 27-39.
Pannicke, S. Kölling, M., Schulz, H.D., Panteleit, B., Reichling, J., Scheps, V. (2006): Auswirkung hydrogeologischer Kenngrößen auf die Kältefahnen von Erdwärmesondenanlagen in Lockersedimenten.- Grundwasser 11, 6-18.
Arteaga, O., Kölling, A., Kölling, M. Roos, A.M., Schulz, H., Schulz, H.D. (2004): Geoarqueología urbana de Cádiz. Informe preliminar sobre la campanade 2001. Anuario arqueológico de Andalucía 2001 – Volumen I. III-Actividades de urgencia. pp 27-40.
Arteaga, O., Kölling, A., Kölling, M., Roos, A.-M., Schulz, H., Schulz, H.D (2004):Geschichte des Küstenverlaufs im Stadtgebiet von Cádiz. Madrider Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Bd. 45, Reichert Verl. Wiesbaden, pp. 181-215
Hecht, H., Kölling, M. & Schulz, H.D. (2003): Pyrite weathering in the unsaturated zone of lignite mine tailings: Release of As, Cd, Ni and Pb in a soil column experiment.- In: Hadeler, A. & H.D. Schulz (Eds.): Geochemical Processes in Soil and Groundwater: Measurement - Modelling - Upscaling. Wiley.
Wien, K., Schulz, H.D., Kölling, M. Wissmann, D.(2003): Der Erdgeschichte auf der Spur - mit energiedispersiver Röntgenfluoreszenzanalytik, GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift,11; 1151-1153.

Hecht, H. & Kölling, M. (2002): Investigation of pyrite weathering processes in the vadose zone using optical oxygen sensors.- Environmental Geology, 42/7, pp 800-809.
H. Hecht, M. Kölling and N. Geissler (2002): DiffMod7 - modeling oxygen diffusion and pyrite decomposition in the unsaturated zone based on ground air oxygen distribution.- pp 55-78, in: Schulz, H.D. & Teutsch, G. (Eds): "Geochemical Processes - Concepts for Modeling Reactive Transport in Soils and Groundwater", Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527609703.ch4
Koelling, M. Hecht, H and Holst, G.A. (2002): Simple plastic fiber based optode array for the in-situ measurement of ground air oxygen concentrations.- in: Advanced Environmental Sensing Technology II.- Tuan Vo-Dinh, Stephanus Büttgenbach (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE Vol 4576, pp 75-86; ISBN 0-8194-4304-2
Hecht, H. & Kölling, M. (2001a): A low-cost optode-array measuring system based on 1 mm plastic optical fibers - new technique for in situ detection and quantification of pyrite weathering processes.- Sensors and Actuators B 81, pp.76-82, Elsevier
Hecht, H. & Kölling, M. (2001b): A very low attenuation fiber-optical sensor switch (LAFOSS).- Sensors and Actuators B 81, pp.128-131, Elsevier
Kölling, M. (2000): Comparison of Different Methods for Redox Potential Determination in Natural Waters.- p. 42-54 In: Schüring, J., Schulz, H.D., Fischer, W.R., Böttcher, J., Duijnisveld, W.H.M., (Eds.) (2000):Redox - Fundamentals, Processes and Applications, 251 pp. 110 figs., 21 tabs. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.
Kölling, M. Ebert, M. & Schulz, H.D. (2000): A Novel Approach to the Presentation of pE/pH-Diagrams.- p. 55-63 In: Schüring, J., Schulz, H.D., Fischer, W.R., Böttcher, J., Duijnisveld, W.H.M., (Eds.) (2000): Redox - Fundamentals, Processes and Applications, 251 pp. 110 figs., 21 tabs. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.
Kühn, M. Frosch, G., Kölling, M. Kellner, T., Althaus,E. & Schulz, H.D. (1997): Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Barytübersättigung einer Thermalsole.- Grundwasser 3, 2, 111-117.
Schüring, J., Kölling, M. & Schulz, H.D. (1997): The potential formation of acid mine drainage in pyrite-bearing hard-coal tailings under water saturated conditions - An experimental approach.- Envir. Geol. 31, 59-65.
Schüring, J., Kölling, M. & Schulz, H.D. (1996b): Die Eignung von Steinkohlebergematerialien im Deponiebau im Hinblick auf die Oxidation von Pyrit durch Sauerstoff beziehungsweise Nitrat. In: Merkel, B. Dietrich, P.G., Struckmeier, W., Löhnert, E.P.: Grundwasser und Rohstoffgewinnung, v.Loga, Köln; 469-474.

Kölling, M. (1995): Impact of lignite slag heaps on groundwater quality.- in European Commission (1995): EUR16520 - ExternE: Externalities of Energy.- Vol. 3 Coal & Lignite; Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; pp. 515-536;Luxembourg.
Isenbeck-Schröter, M., Kölling, M., Schulz, H.D. & Zabel, M.(1994): Modelling of redox processes during transport of solutes in pore water and groundwater.- Water Down Under 94, Adelaide 21-25 Nov 1994, Vol. 2 part B, Grondwater Papers: pp.183-187.
Kölling, M. & Schüring, J. (1994): Pyrite Weathering in Coal Mine Tailings.- In: Water Down Under 94: Groundwater Papers; Preprints of Papers. Barton, ACT: Institution of Engineers, Australia, 1994: 545-550.
Kölling,M. & Schulz, H.D. (1993): Pyritverwitterung und saure Grubenwässer in Halden des Braunkohlen-Tagebaus.- in: Dörhöfer, G. Thein, J. & Wiggering, H. (Eds.): Abfallbeseitigung und Deponien.- pp.41-47 ;Ernst & Sohn, Berlin.
Kölling, M. (1992b): FREAKIN - ein Programm zur Erzeugung von Eingabedateien für PHREEQE.- in: DVWK (Ed.): Anwendung hydrogeochemischer Modelle.- DVWK-Schriften 100, pp. 323-344; Parey, Berlin.
Note *** If you are interested in working with PHREEQE please download the latest version of PHREEQCi which includes a very nice user interface, that is much more sophisticated than my 1992 user interface. ***

Kölling, M. (1992a): Modellierung geogener Grundwasserbeschaffenheit an Beispielen aus dem norddeutschen Flachland.- in: DVWK (Ed.): Anwendung hydrogeochemischer Modelle.- DVWK-Schriften 100, pp. 97-199; Parey, Berlin.
Kölling, M. & Schulz, H.D. (1992): Description of Geochemical Environments with Thermodynamic Equilibrium Models.- in: Matthess, G., Frimmel, F., Hirsch, P., Schulz, H.D. & Usdowski, H.-E.(Eds.): Progress in Hydrogeochemistry.- 484-498; Springer Berlin
Dahmke A., Kölling, A., Kölling, M., Kretzschmar, M., Remmler, F., Schöttler, U. & Schulz, H.D. in DVWK (Ed.) (1990): Methodensammlung zur Auswertung und Darstellung von Grundwasserbeschaffenheitsdaten.- DVWK-Schriften 89: 216 p.; Parey, Berlin.
Kölling, M. (1988): Vom berechneten Sättigungsindex zur Reaktion im Grundwasser,- Z. dt. geol. Ges. 139: 393-405; Hannover.
Kölling, M. & Schlüter, M.(1988): Das Ahrensburg-Stellmoorer Tunneltal (Nordost-Teil).- Meyniana 41: 85-95; Kiel.
Kölling, M.(1986): Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Bestimmung des Redoxpotentials natürlicher Wässer.-Meyniana 38: 1-19; Kiel.

Data Sets

                                  He
Li Be                     B C N O F Ne
Na Mg                     Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba L Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra A                              
  L La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu  
  A Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr