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Dr. Enno Schefuß

Research Staff


MARUM Director


+49 421 218-65526


+49 421-218



MARUM I, 1160

Dr. Enno Schefuß

Research Interests

Organic Geochemistry (lipid biomarkers as environmental indicators, transport and preservation of organic fractions)

Isotope Geochemistry (molecular 13C, D/H, 14C signals and their significance)

Paleo-Climatology (hydrology und temperature, water and carbon cycling, dust transport)

Paleo-Oceanography (coupling of oceanic and continental climate changes, salinity and river discharge)

References, citations, etc.

Curriculum vitae

2012-TodaySenior Scientist (tenured)
2008-2011Research Scientist, MARUM (partly funded by DFG - own position)
2007Postdoc, Institute for Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany (funded by DFG)
2004-2006Postdoc, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA (partly funded by DFG - Emmy Noether programme)
2002-2004Postdoc, Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany (funded by DFG)
January 2003PhD, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
1998-2002PhD student, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (funded by NWO)
1992-1998Studies of Marine Geology/Marine Geochemistry at University of Cologne (undergraduate), Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (graduate), and Utrecht University (ERASMUS exchange)


MARUM OC2 (DFG) - Land-ocean interaction and climate variability in low latitudes (Project Leader)

RAIN (BMBF) - Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations (within SPACES)


PASADO Lipids (DFG) - Southern Patagonian climate during the last 55,000 years:
insights from lipid biomarkers and their isotopes (within PASADO ICDP)

CARIMA (BMBF) - Natural versus anthropogenic controls of past monsoon variability in Central Asia recorded in marine archives

Pliocene ABC (DFG) - Northwest African biomes and climate variability during the Pliocene

HYDRACENE (DFG) - A new hydrogen-isotope approach to understand North African monsoon changes in the Holocene

MioC4 (DFG) - African climate changes during C4 plant evolution and expansion

Development of novel molecular-isotopic tracers for the hydrologic cycle (DFG)

RCOM A8 (DFG) - Influence of Atlantic thermohaline circulation on tropical sea-surface temperature and North African climate

Assessment of tropical environmental change and its tele-connections for the last deglaciation by means of high resolution biomarker analysis (NWO-NEBROC II)

The composition and transport of Australian airborne dust: critical to continental and marine environments (Australian Research Council)

Multi-isotopic molecular records of rapid African terrestrial vegetation changes (DFG)


March 2017Sampling wetlands in SE Africa and Mozambique
February 2016Meteor cruise M123 offshore eastern South Africa and Mozambique
March 2015Sampling suspension particulates of south-east African rivers and wetlands (S-Africa, Mozambique)
March/April 2014Sampling suspension particulates and flood deposits of south-west African rivers (S-Africa, Namibia)
February/March 2012Response of Amazon sedimentation to deforestation, land use and climate variability (RV Maria S. Merian 20/3)
January/February 2005Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers (RV Meteor 63/1)
July/August 2003Long Calypso coring of African tropical rivers (RV Marion Dufresne MD134)
December 2002Paleoceanography and Gashydrates of the Congo deep-sea fan (RV Meteor 56B)
April/May 2001Somali Upwelling and Paleoceanography (RV Pelagia P178)


Preparative organic-geochemical laboratory

I operate an organic-geochemical laboratory providing 2 fume hoods, an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE200) for automated extraction of various sample materials under high pressure and elevated temperature using programmable solvent mixtures, a rotation evaporator to remove large quantities of solvents from extracts, a nitrogen blow-down device for small vials, a gas-chromatograph with flame-ionisation-detector (GC-FID) for checking lipid fractions on purity and lipid quantification, a gas-chromatograph with mass-selective detector (GC-MSD) for structural investigations of lipids, and a large muffle furnace for effective combustion-cleaning of glassware. Some photos below:

Mass-Spectrometric Laboratory

For isotope mass-spectrometric devices see:
Molecular-isotopic Mass-Spectrometry

People in the lab

Häggi, Christoph, Dr.+49 421 218-65748MARUM I, 2420[Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript]
Kreutz, Ralph+49 421 218-65638MARUM I, Raum 2380[Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript]
Miller, Charlotte, Dr+49 421 218-65664MARUM 1340[Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript]
Ruan, Yanming+49 421 218-65670MARUM I, 2420[Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript]
Wardana, Adhity Kusuma+49 421 218-65585MARUM I, 1340[Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript]


Crivellari, S, Chiessi, CM, Kuhnert, H, Häggi, C, da Costa Portilho-Ramos, R, Zeng, JY, Zhang, Y, Schefuß, E, Mollenhauer, G, Hefter, J, Alexandre, F, Sampaio, G and Mulitza, S (2018) Increased Amazon freshwater discharge during late Heinrich Stadial 1. Quaternary Science Reviews, 181. 144-155. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.12.005

Dupont, LM and Schefuß, E (2018) The roles of fire in Holocene ecosystem changes of West Africa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 481. 255-263. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.10.049 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kuechler, RR, Dupont, LM and Schefuß, E (2018) Hybrid insolation forcing of Pliocene monsoon dynamics in West Africa. Climate of the Past, 14(1). 73-84. doi:10.5194/cp-14-73-2018 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Bertassoli, DJ, Sawakuchi, AO, Sawakuchi, HO, Pupim, FN, Hartmann, GA, McGlue, MM, Chiessi, CM, Zabel, M, Schefuß, E, Pereira, TS, Santos, RA, Faustino, SB, Oliveira, PE and Bicudo, DC (2017) The Fate of Carbon in Sediments of the Xingu and Tapajós Clearwater Rivers, Eastern Amazon. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00044

Collins, JA, Carr, AS, Schefuß, E, Boom, A and Sealy, J (2017) Investigation of organic matter and biomarkers from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa: Insights into Middle Stone Age site usage and palaeoclimate. Journal of Archaeological Science, 85. 51-65. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.011 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Collins, JA, Prange, M, Caley, T, Gimeno, L, Beckmann, B, Mulitza, S, Skonieczny, C, Roche, D and Schefuß, E (2017) Rapid termination of the African Humid Period triggered by northern high-latitude cooling. Nature Communications, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01454-y PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hahn, A, Schefuß, E, Andò, S, Cawthra, HC, Frenzel, P, Kugel, M, Meschner, S, Mollenhauer, G and Zabel, M (2017) Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa. Climate of the Past, 13(6). 649-665. doi:10.5194/cp-13-649-2017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hemingway, JD, Schefuß, E, Spencer, RGM, Dinga, BJ, Eglinton, TI, McIntyre, C and Galy, VV (2017) Hydrologic controls on seasonal and inter-annual variability of Congo River particulate organic matter source and reservoir age. Chemical Geology, 466. 454-465. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.06.034 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Herrmann, N, Boom, A, Carr, AS, Chase, BM, West, AG, Zabel, M and Schefuß, E (2017) Hydrogen isotope fractionation of leaf wax n -alkanes in southern African soils. Organic Geochemistry, 109. 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2017.03.008 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Häggi, C, Chiessi, CM, Merkel, U, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Schulz, M and Schefuß, E (2017) Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 479. 50-59. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.09.013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Lattaud, J, Dorhout, D, Schulz, H, Castañeda, IS, Schefuß, E, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2017) The C-32 alkane-1,15-diol as a proxy of late Quaternary riverine input in coastal margins. Climate of the Past, 13(8). 1049-1061. doi:10.5194/cp-13-1049-2017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Mohtadi, M, Prange, M, Schefuß, E and Jennerjahn, TC (2017) Late Holocene slowdown of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation. Nature Communications, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00855-3

Mulitza, S, Chiessi, CM, Schefuß, E, Lippold, J, Wichmann, D, Antz, B, Mackensen, A, Paul, A, Prange, M, Rehfeld, K, Werner, M, Bickert, T, Frank, N, Kuhnert, H, Lynch-Stieglitz, J, Portilho-Ramos, RC, Sawakuchi, AO, Schulz, M, Schwenk, T, Tiedemann, R, Vahlenkamp, M and Zhang, Y (2017) Synchronous and proportional deglacial changes in Atlantic meridional overturning and northeast Brazilian precipitation. Paleoceanography, 32(6). 622-633. doi:10.1002/2017PA003084 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Nelson, DB, Knohl, A, Sachse, D, Schefuß, E and Kahmen, A (2017) Sources and abundances of leaf waxes in aerosols in central Europe. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 198. 299-314. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.11.018 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Sun, S, Schefuß, E, Mulitza, S, Chiessi, CM, Sawakuchi, AO, Zabel, M, Baker, PA, Hefter, J and Mollenhauer, G (2017) Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments. Biogeosciences, 14(9). 2495-2512. doi:10.5194/bg-14-2495-2017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zhang, Y, Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Sawakuchi, AO, Häggi, C, Zabel, M, Portilho-Ramos, RC, Schefuß, E, Crivellari, S and Wefer, G (2017) Different precipitation patterns across tropical South America during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials. Quaternary Science Reviews, 177. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.10.012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zhao, X, Dupont, L, Schefuß, E, Bouimetarhan, I and Wefer, G (2017) Palynological evidence for Holocene climatic and oceanographic changes off western South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 165. 88-101. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.04.022 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Castañeda, IS, Schouten, S, Pätzold, J, Lucassen, F, Kasemann, SA, Kuhlmann, H and Schefuß, E (2016) Hydroclimate variability in the Nile River Basin during the past 28,000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 438. 47-56. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.12.014 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Chen, W, Mohtadi, M, Schefuß, E and Mollenhauer, G (2016) Concentrations and abundance ratios of long-chain alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in sinking particles south of Java. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 112. 14-24. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2016.02.010 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Contreras-Rosales, LA, Schefuß, E, Meyer, V, Palamenghi, L, Lückge, A and Jennerjahn, TC (2016) Origin and fate of sedimentary organic matter in the northern Bay of Bengal during the last 18ka. Global and Planetary Change, 146. 53-66. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.09.008 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hahn, A, Compton, JS, Meyer-Jacob, C, Kirsten, KL, Lucasssen, F, Pérez Mayo, M, Schefuß, E and Zabel, M (2016) Holocene paleo-climatic record from the South African Namaqualand mudbelt: A source to sink approach. Quaternary International, 404. 121-135. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.017 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hemingway, JD, Schefuß, E, Dinga, BJ, Pryer, H and Galy, VV (2016) Multiple plant-wax compounds record differential sources and ecosystem structure in large river catchments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 184. 20-40. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.04.003 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Herrmann, N, Boom, A, Carr, AS, Chase, BM, Granger, R, Hahn, A, Zabel, M and Schefuß, E (2016) Sources, transport and deposition of terrestrial organic material: A case study from southwestern Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 149. 215-229. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.07.028 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hockun, K, Mollenhauer, G, Ho, SL, Hefter, J, Ohlendorf, C, Zolitschka, B, Mayr, C, Lücke, A and Schefuß, E (2016) Using distributions and stable isotopes of n-alkanes to disentangle organic matter contributions to sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina. Organic Geochemistry, 102. 110-119. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.10.001

Häggi, C, Sawakuchi, AO, Chiessi, CM, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Sawakuchi, HO, Baker, PA, Zabel, M and Schefuß, E (2016) Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 192. 149-165. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.07.002 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Niedermeyer, EM, Forrest, M, Beckmann, B, Sessions, AL, Mulch, A and Schefuß, E (2016) The stable hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes as quantitative proxy for rainfall in the West African Sahel. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 184. 55-70. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.03.034 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Eglinton, TI, Spencer-Jones, CL, Rullkötter, J, de Pol-Holz, R, Talbot, HM, Grootes, PM and Schneider, RR (2016) Hydrologic control of carbon cycling and aged carbon discharge in the Congo River basin. Nature Geoscience, 9(9). 687-690. doi:10.1038/ngeo2778 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Vogts, A, Badewien, T, Rullkötter, J and Schefuß, E (2016) Near-constant apparent hydrogen isotope fractionation between leaf wax n-alkanes and precipitation in tropical regions: Evidence from a marine sediment transect off SW Africa. Organic Geochemistry, 96. 18-27. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.03.003 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Zhao, X, Dupont, LM, Schefuß, E, Meadows, ME, Hahn, A and Wefer, G (2016) Holocene vegetation and climate variability in the winter and summer rainfall zones of South Africa. The Holocene. doi:10.1177/0959683615622544 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Bouimetarhan, I, Dupont, LM, Kuhlmann, H, Pätzold, J, Prange, M, Schefuß, E and Zonneveld, KAF (2015) Northern Hemisphere control of deglacial vegetation changes in the Rufiji uplands (Tanzania). Climate of the Past, 11(5). 751-764. doi:10.5194/cp-11-751-2015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Häggi, C, Chiessi, CM and Schefuß, E (2015) Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume. Biogeosciences, 12(23). 7239-7249. doi:10.5194/bg-12-7239-2015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Spencer-Jones, CL, Wagner, T, Dinga, BJ, Schefuß, E, Mann, PJ, Poulsen, JR, Spencer, RGM, Wabakanghanzi, JN and Talbot, HM (2015) Bacteriohopanepolyols in tropical soils and sediments from the Congo River catchment area. Organic Geochemistry, 89-90. 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2015.09.003

Chen, W, Mohtadi, M, Schefuß, E and Mollenhauer, G (2014) Organic-geochemical proxies of sea surface temperature in surface sediments of the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 88. 17-29. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.03.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Collins, JA, Schefuß, E, Govin, A, Mulitza, S and Tiedemann, R (2014) Insolation and glacial–interglacial control on southwestern African hydroclimate over the past 140 000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 398. 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.034 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Contreras-Rosales, LA, Jennerjahn, TC, Tharammal, T, Meyer, V, Lückge, A, Paul, A and Schefuß, E (2014) Evolution of the Indian Summer Monsoon and terrestrial vegetation in the Bengal region during the past 18 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews, 102. 133-148. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.08.010 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Garcin, Y, Schefuß, E, Schwab, VF, Garreta, V, Gleixner, G, Vincens, A, Todou, G, Séné, O, Onana, JM, Achoundong, G and Sachse, D (2014) Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 142. 482-500. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.07.004 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Haberzettl, T, Baade, J, Compton, J, Daut, G, Dupont, LM, Finch, J, Frenzel, P, Green, A, Hahn, A, Hebbeln, D, Helmschrot, J, Humphries, M, Kasper, T, Kirsten, K, Mäusbacher, R, Meadows, M, Meschner, S, Quick, L, Schefuß, E, Wündsch, M and Zabel, M (2014) Paleoenvironmental investigations using a combination of terrestrial and marine sediments from South Africa - The RAIN (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations) approach. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie, Teil I, 2014(1). 55-73. doi:10.1127/zgpI/2014/0055-0073

Just, J, Schefuß, E, Kuhlmann, H, Stuut, JBW and Pätzold, J (2014) Climate induced sub-basin source-area shifts of Zambezi River sediments over the past 17ka. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410. 190-199. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.05.045 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rampen, SW, Willmott, V, Kim, JH, Rodrigo-Gámiz, M, Uliana, E, Mollenhauer, G, Schefuß, E, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2014) Evaluation of long chain 1,14-alkyl diols in marine sediments as indicators for upwelling and temperature. Organic Geochemistry, 76. 39-47. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.07.012 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Talbot, HM, Handley, L, Spencer-Jones, CL, Dinga, BJ, Schefuß, E, Mann, PJ, Poulsen, JR, Spencer, RGM, Wabakanghanzi, JN and Wagner, T (2014) Variability in aerobic methane oxidation over the past 1.2 Myrs recorded in microbial biomarker signatures from Congo fan sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 133. 387-401. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.02.035 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Vallé, F, Dupont, LM, Leroy, SAG, Schefuß, E and Wefer, G (2014) Pliocene environmental change in West Africa and the onset of strong NE trade winds (ODP Sites 659 and 658). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 414. 403-414. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.09.023 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Weijers, JWH, Schefuß, E, Kim, JH, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2014) Constraints on the sources of branched tetraether membrane lipids in distal marine sediments. Organic Geochemistry, 72. 14-22. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.04.011 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Collins, JA, Schefuß, E, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Werner, M, Tharammal, T, Paul, A and Wefer, G (2013) Estimating the hydrogen isotopic composition of past precipitation using leaf-waxes from western Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 65. 88-101. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.007 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Dupont, LM, Rommerskirchen, F, Mollenhauer, G and Schefuß, E (2013) Miocene to Pliocene changes in South African hydrology and vegetation in relation to the expansion of C4 plants. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 375. 408-417. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hoetzel, S, Dupont, LM, Schefuß, E, Rommerskirchen, F and Wefer, G (2013) The role of fire in Miocene to Pliocene C4 grassland and ecosystem evolution. Nature Geoscience, 6(12). 1027-1030. doi:10.1038/ngeo1984 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kahmen, A, Hoffmann, B, Schefuß, E, Arndt, SK, Cernusak, LA, West, JB and Sachse, D (2013) Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants II: Observational evidence and global implications. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 111. 50-63. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.09.004

Kahmen, A, Schefuß, E and Sachse, D (2013) Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants I: Experimental evidence and mechanistic insights. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 111. 39-49. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.09.003

Kuechler, RR, Schefuß, E, Beckmann, B, Dupont, LM and Wefer, G (2013) NW African hydrology and vegetation during the Last Glacial cycle reflected in plant-wax-specific hydrogen and carbon isotopes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 82. 56-67. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.10.013 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Leider, A, Hinrichs, KU, Schefuß, E and Versteegh, GJM (2013) Distribution and stable isotopes of plant wax derived n-alkanes in lacustrine, fluvial and marine surface sediments along an Eastern Italian transect and their potential to reconstruct the hydrological cycle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 117. 16-32. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.04.018 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Bouimetarhan, I, Prange, M, Schefuß, E, Dupont, LM, Lippold, J, Mulitza, S and Zonneveld, KAF (2012) Sahel megadrought during Heinrich Stadial 1: evidence for a three-phase evolution of the low- and mid-level West African wind system. Quaternary Science Reviews, 58. 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.10.015 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rampen, SW, Willmott, V, Kim, JH, Uliana, E, Mollenhauer, G, Schefuß, E, Damste, JSS and Schouten, S (2012) Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-diols as a potential proxy for palaeotemperature reconstruction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84. 204-216. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.01.024 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Vogts, A, Schefuß, E, Badewien, T and Rullkötter, J (2012) n-Alkane parameters from a deep sea sediment transect off Southwest Africa reflect continental vegetation and climate conditions. Organic Geochemistry, 47. 109-119. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.03.011 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Collins, JA, Schefuß, E, Heslop, D, Mulitza, S, Prange, M, Zabel, M, Tjallingii, R, Dokken, T, Huang, E, Mackensen, A, Schulz, M, Tian, J, Zarriess, M and Wefer, G (2011) Interhemispheric symmetry of tropical African rainbelt over the past 23,000 years. Nature Geoscience, 4(1). 42-45. doi:10.1038/ngeo1039 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Dupont, LM, Linder, HP, Rommerskirchen, F and Schefuß, E (2011) Climate-driven rampant speciation of the cape flora. Journal of Biogeography, 38(6). 1059-1068. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02476.x PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rommerskirchen, F, Condon, T, Mollenhauer, G, Dupont, LM and Schefuß, E (2011) Miocene to Pliocene development of surface and subsurface temperatures in the Benguela Current system. Paleoceanography, 26. PA3216. doi:10.1029/2010PA002074 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Kuhlmann, H, Mollenhauer, G, Prange, M and Pätzold, J (2011) Forcing of south-east African wet phases during the last 17,000 years. Nature, 480(7378). 509-512. doi:10.1038/nature10685 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Castañeda, IS, Schefuß, E, Pätzold, J, Sinninghe Damsté, JS, Weldeab, S and Schouten, S (2010) Millennial-scale sea surface temperature changes in the eastern Mediterranean (Nile River Delta region) over the last 27,000 years. Paleoceanography, 25. PA1208. doi:10.1029/2009PA001740 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kusch, S, Rethemeyer, J, Schefuß, E and Mollenhauer, G (2010) Controls on the age of vascular plant biomarkers in Black Sea sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74(24). 7031-7047. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2010.09.005 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Lopes dos Santos, RA, Prange, M, Castañeda, IS, Schefuß, E, Mulitza, S, Schulz, M, Niedermeyer, EM, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2010) Glacial-interglacial variability in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and thermocline adjustments in the tropical North Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300(3-4). 407-414. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.030

Niedermeyer, EM, Schefuß, E, Sessions, AL, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Schulz, M and Wefer, G (2010) Orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the hydrologic cycle and vegetation in the western African Sahel: Insights from individual plant wax delta D and d13C. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(23-24). 2996-3005. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.039 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Bouimetarhan, I, Dupont, LM, Schefuß, E, Mollenhauer, G, Mulitza, S and Zonneveld, KAF (2009) Palynological evidence for climatic and oceanic variability off NW Africa during the late Holocene. Quaternary Research, 72(2). 188-197. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2009.05.003 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Castañeda, IS, Mulitza, S, Schefuß, E, Lopes dos Santos, RA, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2009) Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(48). 20159-20163. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905771106 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Niedermeyer, EM, Prange, M, Mulitza, S, Mollenhauer, G, Schefuß, E and Schulz, M (2009) Extratropical forcing of Sahel aridity during Heinrich stadials. Geophysical Research Letters, 36. L20707. doi:10.1029/2009GL039687 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Rampen, SW, Schouten, S, Schefuß, E and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2009) Impact of temperature on long chain diol and mid-chain hydroxy methyl alkanoate composition in Proboscia diatoms: Results from culture and field studies. Organic Geochemistry, 40(11). 1124-1131. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.08.005

Weijers, JWH, Schouten, S, Schefuß, E, Schneider, RR and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2009) Disentangling marine, soil and plant organic carbon contributions to continental margin sediments: A multi-proxy approach in a 20,000 year sediment record from the Congo deep-sea fan. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(1). 119-132. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.10.016 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Kaiser, J, Schefuß, E, Lamy, F, Mohtadi, M and Hebbeln, D (2008) Glacial to Holocene changes in sea surface temperature and coastal vegetation in north central Chile: high versus low latitude forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(21-22). 2064-2075. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.025

de Deckker, P, Abed, RMM, de Beer, D, Hinrichs, KU, O'Loingsigh, T, Schefuß, E, Stuut, JB, Tapper, NJ and van der Kaars, S (2008) Geochemical and microbiological fingerprinting of airborne dust that fell in Canberra, Australia, in October 2002. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9. Q12Q10. doi:10.1029/2008GC002091

Weijers, JWH, Schefuß, E, Schouten, S and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2007) Coupled Thermal and Hydrological Evolution of Tropical Africa over the Last Deglaciation. Science, 315. 1701-1704. doi:10.1126/science.1138131 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Jansen, JHF and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2005) Tropical environmental changes at the mid-Pleistocene transition: insights from lipid biomarkers. In: Head, MJ and Gibbard, PL (eds.) Early-middle Pleistocene transitions: the land-ocean evidence. Geological Society, Special Publications, 247. The Geological Society of London, 35-63.

Schefuß, E, Schouten, S and Schneider, RR (2005) Climatic controls on central African hydrology during the last 20,000 years. Nature, 437. 1003-1006. doi:10.1038/nature03945 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Scourse, JD, Marret, F, Versteegh, GJM, Jansen, JHF, Schefuß, E and van der Plicht, J (2005) High resolution last deglaciation record from the Congo fan reveals significance of mangrove pollen and biomarkers as indicators of shelf transgression. Quaternary Research, 64(1). 57-69. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.03.002 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Stuut, JB, Zabel, M, Ratmeyer, V, Helmke, P, Schefuß, E, Lavik, G and Schneider, RR (2005) Provenance of present-day eolian dust collected off NW Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 110. D04202. doi:10.1029/2004JD005161 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Hopmans, EC, Weijers, JWH, Schefuß, E, Herfort, L, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Schouten, S (2004) A novel proxy for terrestrial organic matter in sediments based on branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 224(1-2). 107-116. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.012

Schefuß, E, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Jansen, JHF (2004) Forcing of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures during the mid-Pleistocene transition. Paleoceanography, 19. PA4029. doi:10.1029/2003PA000892 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Versteegh, GJM, Jansen, JHF and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2004) Lipid biomarkers as major source and preservation indicators in SE Atlantic surface sediments. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 51(9). 1199-1228. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2004.05.002 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Versteegh, GJM, Schefuß, E, Dupont, LM, Marret, F, Sinninghe Damsté, JS and Jansen, JHF (2004) Taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen as proxies for tracking past mangrove ecosystems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68(3). 411-422. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00456-3 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Ratmeyer, V, Stuut, JB, Jansen, JHF and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2003) Carbon isotope analyses of n-alkanes in dust from the lower atmosphere over the central eastern Atlantic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(10). 1757-1767. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01414-X PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schefuß, E, Schouten, S, Jansen, JHF and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2003) African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature, 422(6930). 418-421. doi:10.1038/nature01500 PANGAEA Supplementary Data

Schouten, S, Hopmans, EC, Schefuß, E and Sinninghe Damsté, JS (2002) Distributional variations in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 204(1-2). 265-274. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00979-2