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LAPM Tools

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LAPM is a software solution specifically dedicated to the production of underwater large area photo-mosaics. The LAPM tools were developed to enable end-user scientists to build large area photo-mosaics easily, without requiring in-depth knowledge of the techniques involved. To that end, the programs can be downloaded and used for free (non-commercial and commercial use).

The LAPM tools include the following programs:

  • LAPMv2: this is the latest, recommended release of LAPM.
  • LAPM tool (legacy version): this is the first release of LAPM. It is considerably slower than LAPMv2. We do not recommend to use this version, unless you do not have any positioning data for your images.

See the table below and the related publications (listed below) for more details about the differences between the programs.


The use (non-commercial and commercial) of mosaics created with any of the LAPM programs must be credited with a mention that the mosaics were created with the LAPM Tool. This credit must be added to any presentation or publication (of any kind: report, scientific publication, newspaper, etc.) in which the mosaics are used. This credit must be provided in a README file together with the mosaic files whenever the files are delivered or sold to a third-party or customer. If the mosaics are used in a scientific publication (peer-reviewed or not), please acknowledge the use of LAPM by citing the associated publications (listed below).


LAPM is a proprietary software, which can be downloaded and used for free (freeware). All versions of LAPM are distributed in the hope that they will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.


  • Marcon Y., Sahling H. and Bohrmann G. (2013), LAPM: a tool for underwater large-area photo-mosaicking: Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 2(2). 189-198.  doi:10.5194/gi-2-189-2013.
  • Marcon Y. (2014), LAPMv2: An improved tool for underwater large-area photo-mosaicking: MTS/IEEE Oceans 2014 Conference, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, p. 1–10.  doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2014.7003185.


FunctionalityLAPM toolLAPMv2
Automated feature detection Yes Yes
Fast feature detection - Yes
Automated crossover and sidelap detection Brute force (slow) Distance-based (fast)
Automated workflow (batch mode) - Yes
Outlier rejection Normal Normal / Strict
Manual feature matching Yes Yes
Link editor interface Yes -
Automated georeferencing Yes Yes
Manual georeferencing Yes n/a

Positioning data Optional Required
Camera sensor parameters - Required

Mosaic files Mosaic image only Mosaic image
Mosaic dataset (with LAPM Toolbox for ArcGIS)
Mosaic file formats TIFF image + ArcGIS world file (.tfw) GeoTIFF
TIFF image + ArcGIS world file (.tfw)
Mosaic resolution Full / Reduced Full / Reduced
DOWNLOADprogram (64bit):
windows, mac
user manual
program (64bit):
windows, mac, linux
user manual
demo project